Biopsychology Of Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biopsychology Of Emotion Deck (19)
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Give 2 pieces of evidence for the james -Lange theory

1) people with paralysis still report emotion but people with autonomic failure report less intense emotion

2) induced smiling, frowning etc increases reported emotion (facial feedback hypothesis)


What is emotion?


Autonomic nervous system conveys sensory info to rest if brain, stimulates reflex actions. This is largely unconscious.


Emotion is associated with physiological response that causes action. But in which order?

Common sense: event-emotion-action

James-Lange theory: event-action-fear

Eg. I am frightened because I ran away


What is James-Lange's theory?

Event- appraisal- action- emotion

E.g. Scary thing- appraisal-run away-fear


Panshepp (1991/98)

Emotion systems are sub-critical and ancient, shared with other animals


What does the lambic system do?

The lambic system is crucial to emotion and motivation. Sensory input, emotional responses to pain, and regulates behaviour (proof-rabies)


Describe disgust

There is a clear cortical basis- insula cortex.
This is the primary taste cortex. If you feel disgusted, or see someone else is disgusted or morally disgusted this is activated.


Gray, 1970. (Lateralisation)

Left hemisphere relates to behavioural activation system
Low autonomic arousal
Approach (happiness, anger)
Left frontal and temporal lobes
Right hemisphere relates to behavioural inhibition system
Increase attention and arousal
Inhibited action (disgust, fear)
Right frontal and temporal lobes

People with more LH activation are happier

People with more RH activation are more withdrawn
But RH more responsive to emotional stimuli.


Waela procedure?

Remember event but denied emotion


What is the function of emotion?

Survival responses (fear=runaway, anger=attack).
Autonomic activity alerts you to a problem before it is consciously registered. Often linked to observable behaviour in humans
If we analyse similar behaviours in other species, we can work out functions of specific emotions.


Ekman et al, 1969. (Universal facial expressions)

Basic muscles=always present=always symmetrical

Non-basic muscles=not always present=often asymmetrical


Why do we blush?

Reddening of the face associated with embarrassment

Uniquely human (Darwin, 1872) but continuous with social appeasement in non-humans, deflect attention- avoid conflict.

Parasympathetic activation- attempt to calm the body (vasodilation-cools)


What is the relationship between fear and anger?

Thought to be opposites.

Both associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system


Describe aggression in relation to heredity and environment

Generic contributors to violence

MZ twins more similar than DZ twins Im violence/criminal activity

Correlation between prenatal smoking and adult crime

High levels of testosterone-causal?

Stimulation of the hypothalamus can induce aggressive attacks, widespread stimulation also induces aggressive Attacks e.g. Epilepsy


Describe aggression in relation to serotonin

Low release may be linked to aggression. Serotonin is a NT associated with regulation (correlation)

Higley et al 1996- monkey with low serotonin turn over were most aggressive and all dies younger- there is an optimum balance of aggression and fear


Describe fear as an innate response

Animals may be born with innate fears.

Startle reflex- response to sudden noises- very fast: cochlea nucleus-pons-muscle tension in neck.

Amygdala damage disrupts the startle reflex. By impairing the animals ability to learn which stimuli are scary. Amygdala helps conditioned responses form


What is taxoplasma?

A parasite that reproduces in cats. Infects rats, affects amygdala, rat doesn't condition fear properly. Approaches cat and gets eaten
(Berdy 2000)


What is Klurer-Bucy syndrome?

Amygdala damage. Placid, tame monkeys. Willing to approach snakes, dominant monkeys, and experimenters etc.

Does the amygdala affect inhibition more than fear?


Describe the role of the amygdala in humans

It is for emotional processing in general. More active when looking at emotional expressions
Responds to emotional stimuli that isn't identifies consciously- (study- flash response)

If the amygdala is damaged people still feel emotion but struggle to interpret info when ambiguous or subtle.

Adolohs et al 1995. Amygdala damage patient could not draw a face showing fear.