Flashcards in Biopsychology Of Emotion Deck (19)
Give 2 pieces of evidence for the james -Lange theory
1) people with paralysis still report emotion but people with autonomic failure report less intense emotion
2) induced smiling, frowning etc increases reported emotion (facial feedback hypothesis)
What is emotion?
Autonomic nervous system conveys sensory info to rest if brain, stimulates reflex actions. This is largely unconscious.
Emotion is associated with physiological response that causes action. But in which order?
Common sense: event-emotion-action
James-Lange theory: event-action-fear
Eg. I am frightened because I ran away
What is James-Lange's theory?
Event- appraisal- action- emotion
E.g. Scary thing- appraisal-run away-fear
Emotion systems are sub-critical and ancient, shared with other animals
What does the lambic system do?
The lambic system is crucial to emotion and motivation. Sensory input, emotional responses to pain, and regulates behaviour (proof-rabies)
There is a clear cortical basis- insula cortex.
This is the primary taste cortex. If you feel disgusted, or see someone else is disgusted or morally disgusted this is activated.
Gray, 1970. (Lateralisation)
Left hemisphere relates to behavioural activation system
Low autonomic arousal
Approach (happiness, anger)
Left frontal and temporal lobes
Right hemisphere relates to behavioural inhibition system
Increase attention and arousal
Inhibited action (disgust, fear)
Right frontal and temporal lobes
People with more LH activation are happier
People with more RH activation are more withdrawn
But RH more responsive to emotional stimuli.
Remember event but denied emotion
What is the function of emotion?
Survival responses (fear=runaway, anger=attack).
Autonomic activity alerts you to a problem before it is consciously registered. Often linked to observable behaviour in humans
If we analyse similar behaviours in other species, we can work out functions of specific emotions.
Ekman et al, 1969. (Universal facial expressions)
Basic muscles=always present=always symmetrical
Non-basic muscles=not always present=often asymmetrical
Why do we blush?
Reddening of the face associated with embarrassment
Uniquely human (Darwin, 1872) but continuous with social appeasement in non-humans, deflect attention- avoid conflict.
Parasympathetic activation- attempt to calm the body (vasodilation-cools)
What is the relationship between fear and anger?
Thought to be opposites.
Both associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Describe aggression in relation to heredity and environment
Generic contributors to violence
MZ twins more similar than DZ twins Im violence/criminal activity
Correlation between prenatal smoking and adult crime
High levels of testosterone-causal?
Stimulation of the hypothalamus can induce aggressive attacks, widespread stimulation also induces aggressive Attacks e.g. Epilepsy
Describe aggression in relation to serotonin
Low release may be linked to aggression. Serotonin is a NT associated with regulation (correlation)
Higley et al 1996- monkey with low serotonin turn over were most aggressive and all dies younger- there is an optimum balance of aggression and fear
Describe fear as an innate response
Animals may be born with innate fears.
Startle reflex- response to sudden noises- very fast: cochlea nucleus-pons-muscle tension in neck.
Amygdala damage disrupts the startle reflex. By impairing the animals ability to learn which stimuli are scary. Amygdala helps conditioned responses form
What is taxoplasma?
A parasite that reproduces in cats. Infects rats, affects amygdala, rat doesn't condition fear properly. Approaches cat and gets eaten
What is Klurer-Bucy syndrome?
Amygdala damage. Placid, tame monkeys. Willing to approach snakes, dominant monkeys, and experimenters etc.
Does the amygdala affect inhibition more than fear?