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Flashcards in Long Term Memory Systems Deck (27)
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What is non-declarative, explicit. Procedural memory?

Typically reflected through changes in behaviour eg. How to ride a bike. Doesn't involve conscious recollection. Preserved in amnesiacs


How much info can our LTM store?

Reber 2010, 2.5 petabytes. (Computer metaphor)


Describe the effects of anterograde amnesia

Marked impairment in ability to remember new info learned after the onset amnesia


Describe retrograde amnesia

Problems remembering events prior to the onset amnesia. Usually graded in nature.


Describe common etiologies of amnesia

' bilateral stroke
' closed head injury-multiple cog imp
' chronic alcohol abuse leading to a thiamine deficiency and Korsakoff's syndrome.
' bilateral damage to the hippocampus and adjacent regions of the medial temporal lobes (bilat re sections no longer preformed)


Ashcraft 2006 (evidence for distinction between STS & LTS)

Serial position effect.

Fast-recall task of list of words

Most words in middle forgotten

Primacy effect: first words looked over more and so stored in LTM

Recency effect: last words still available in the STM


What is declarative/explicit memory?

Long-term memory for facts and events that can be 'declared'. Involves conscious recollection. Impaired in amnesiacs


Craik and Lockhart (1972)

Levels of processing

Making things meaningful makes them more memorable.
Deeper levels of processing encourage better recall because of distinctiveness and elaboration


What is a common criticism of the LOP framework?

That it describes rather than explains


What is self reference effect?

Rogers, kuiper & kirker 1977

Participants asked to process a list of words according to following conditions;
Physical characteristics
Acoustic characteristics
Semantic characteristics
Application to themselves

Best recall with self reference


What is context dependence? (Godden & Baddeley, 1975)

Learning phase: on shore or 20ft under water
Test phase the same recalled words better


what is retrieval based learning? (Karpicke, 2012)

Practicing retrieving info is best way of making it last in your LTM. Effects last over time.


What is the 'Expecting to teach effect'

Participants studied a 1541 word passage. And expected to either teach it or be tested on it. Participants who were going to teach it recalled more


Roediger 1980, metaphors of memory

An aviary
A library
A computer hard drive
A video recorder


What is a recovered memory case (2009)

Claims that the person had no knowledge of any abuse until it suddenly came back many years later


What is the permastore?

Bahrick 1984: analogy to permanent frozen polar regions, very long, stable memories.

Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittlonger 1975: even after 25 years former students showed they forgot remarkably little about their classmates

Bahrick, Hall and Da Costa (2008): Collage graduates memory of their grades remained fairly constant over spans of up to 54 years


Not all memory is stored accurately. Describe Bartlett and 'war of the ghosts'

Bartlett was interested in what happens when info is passed from one culture to another. Used a North American story.
Participants do not recall the story verbatim but reconstruct the details according to pre existing schemata.
Not always clear and misleading.


According to Bartlett....

We try to make sense of new information and relate it to information we already know. We make an effort after meaning.
We get the idea of schema or script into which new information can become assimilated


What are schemata?

The use of past to deal new experience

Stored framework about some topic

General knowledge structure used for understanding


What are the functions of schema?

(General) to help us understand incoming information

(Specific) categorise new instances
Infer additional attributes
Guide interpretation attention

Not always accurate
Eg. Stereotypes


How do schemata effect recall?

Anderson and pitchert (1978) found that people remember more details relevant to Their schemata


Tukey and Brewer (2003) eye witnesses

Eyewitnesses have better recall for schema-related info. They generally interpret ambiguous info as being constant with the schema.


What is weapon focus effect

The presence of a weapon causes eyewitnesses to fail to recall other details.


Describe the effect of anxiety and stress on memory

Deffenbacher et al (2004) meta-analysis.

Negative impact on eyewitness identification accuracy

Reduce ability of eyewitness to remember culprit, crime scene and action details.


What is the effect of leading questions?

Loftus and Palmer (1974)

Trigger word
Speed estimation? Smashed v contacted


What is the effect of post-event misinformation?

Lotus, Miller and burns (1978)

Stop v yield
75 v 41% accuracy

Memory can be distorted by the way questions are phrased


What is transactive memory effect?

Memory conformity for details that is affected by how well you know/like the person you are discussing with