Flashcards in Everyday Memory Deck (32)
What is the everyday memory approach? (Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996)
Materials: older, rehearsed
Of interest: fit of individuals report and actual event
Motivation: perps all goals
Focus on: relevance
Describe purposeful action
Neisser 1996 believed everyday memory research is based on action which;
1) is purposeful
2) has a personal quality about it, meaning it is influenced by the individuals personality and other characteristics (e.g. To impress and audience)
What is episodic memory?
Memory for past events in our live. The 'what' 'where' and 'when'- distinctly human.
-ability to mentally time travel
-awareness of what we are doing
(Evidence that it is distinct from semantic memory)
What is autobiographical memory?
Conway, Pleydell-Pearce & Whitecross 2001
Function of defining identity, linking personal and public history. Supporting a network of personal goals across life span. Grounding self in experience.
Evidence that it is distinct from episodic memory
What are the 3 levels of specificity of knowledge base of AM?
1) lifetime periods- substantial periods of time, defined by major ongoing situations, thematic and temporal knowledge
2) general events- repeated and single events
3) event specific knowledge- images, feelings and other details relating to general events
What is the working self? (Conway, 2005)
A complex set of active goals and self images through which information is filtered and encoded
What are the ways autobiographical memory is accused?
1) general retrieval: deliberate construction of autobiographical memories (working self + knowledge base)
2) Direct retrieval: triggered by specific cues
What is the role of olfaction on memory?
Most believe odours provide reminders of vivid and emotional personal memories
Eg Maylor et al 2002- Clu and Downs 2000
Lack of olfactory memories makes them special
What is a flashbulb memory?
Vivid long lasting autobiographical memories for important dramatic and surprising public events, such as terrorist attack sept 11 or death of princess Di
What are the 3 flashbulb memory models?
1) photographic model (brown and kulik, 1977) paralleling now print theory
2) comprehensive model. (Conway 1994) 3 main procedures over time. Prior knowledge, personal importance, affective reaction
3) integrative emotional model. Surprise is a direct determent of fm
What does Ost 2008 et al say about flashbulb memory?
What do Talarico and Rubin (2003) say about flashbulb memories?
FbMs aren't fully formed at the moment they learn of the event
What does Neisser say about FbMs?
The term flashbulb is misleading as memories are not so much momentary snapshots as enduring benchmarks. They are the places where we line up our own lives with the course of history itself and say 'I was there'
Describe memories across a lifetime
Rubin, wetzler and Nebes (1986)
-infantile amnesia: lack of personal memories for the first 3 years of life
-reminiscence bump: high number of memories coming from age 15-30
Cross cultures Conway et al 2005
Describe infant amnesia
(Howe Courage, 1997)
A developed sense of self is necessary to form autobiographical memories- age 2, provides schemata
2003: self recognisers had better memory for personal events
What is the social-cultural theory of infantile amnesia ?
(Fivush and Nelson 2004)
Language and culture central to autobiographical memory development.
Harley and Reese 1999- childhood memories
Elaboration provides a chance to 'rehearse' more common with western mothers
What are the main parts of the reminiscence bump?
Rubin et al (1998)
Novelty: effort after meaning, proactive interference, distinctive memories
Stability: stable Periods of life more likely to serve as models for future events
Life script: coherent account of who we are and how we got here (emotionally intense, typically well coded) - falling in love, uni, marriage, children
Describe Glück and Blucks (2008) study on 'life narrative hypothese
3541 like events
659 ptps age 50-90
Rate memories on emotional valence, personal importance, sense of control
Bump found for only positive memories with high control.
Autobiographical memories from this period are important in creating positive life narrative.
Explain cascading reminiscence bump
Having a bump for something that is not directly related to you. Eg having a bump for sings that were released before you were born as your parents played it a lot when you were a child.
What do Bohn and Bernsten (2011) suggest?
That the RB is based on cultural life scripts. Culturally shared expectations of the timing of life events in prototypical life course.
Asking 10yos about their personal future lead to a RB in young adulthood. Powerful organising influence of culture on autobiographical memory
What do wang and Conway argue? (2006)
Memory does not just occur. In the head but also in social context of social-cultural participation during which participants construct their life story
Individuals with an autonomous self construct....
May be more sensitive to events unique to the self
Individuals who focus on the more relational aspects of self...
May be more sensitive to events involving social interaction and collective events
Describe one difference between the recollection of memory in Caucasian and Chinese individuals
U.S. Ptps provided Voluminous, specific, self focused and emotionally elaborate memories.
Chinese ptps provided brief accounts, centred on collective activities, general routines and emotionally neutral events
What is the traditional approach? (Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996)
Materials: recent and arbitrary
Learning: of intentional
Of interest: number of accessible items
Motivation: arbitrary instruction
Focus on: accuracy
What do Dudukovic, Marsh and Tversky (2004) say about storytelling
Retelling stories in an entertaining way can distort subsequent long-term memory, even when the goal is accuracy
What do Middleton and Brown (2005) state about memory?
Reject the storehouse view in favour of remembering social action
Describe children's autobiographical memory
Children learn specific narrative devices through participating in conversations about experiences
What is HSAM?
Highly superior autobiographical memory