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Flashcards in Everyday Memory Deck (32)
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What is the everyday memory approach? (Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996)

Correspondence metaphor

Materials: older, rehearsed
Learning: incidental
Of interest: fit of individuals report and actual event
Motivation: perps all goals
Focus on: relevance


Describe purposeful action

Neisser 1996 believed everyday memory research is based on action which;

1) is purposeful
2) has a personal quality about it, meaning it is influenced by the individuals personality and other characteristics (e.g. To impress and audience)


What is episodic memory?

(Tulving 2002)
Memory for past events in our live. The 'what' 'where' and 'when'- distinctly human.

-ability to mentally time travel
-awareness of what we are doing

(Evidence that it is distinct from semantic memory)


What is autobiographical memory?

Conway, Pleydell-Pearce & Whitecross 2001

Function of defining identity, linking personal and public history. Supporting a network of personal goals across life span. Grounding self in experience.

Evidence that it is distinct from episodic memory


What are the 3 levels of specificity of knowledge base of AM?

1) lifetime periods- substantial periods of time, defined by major ongoing situations, thematic and temporal knowledge

2) general events- repeated and single events

3) event specific knowledge- images, feelings and other details relating to general events


What is the working self? (Conway, 2005)

A complex set of active goals and self images through which information is filtered and encoded


What are the ways autobiographical memory is accused?

1) general retrieval: deliberate construction of autobiographical memories (working self + knowledge base)

2) Direct retrieval: triggered by specific cues


What is the role of olfaction on memory?

Most believe odours provide reminders of vivid and emotional personal memories
Eg Maylor et al 2002- Clu and Downs 2000

Lack of olfactory memories makes them special


What is a flashbulb memory?

Vivid long lasting autobiographical memories for important dramatic and surprising public events, such as terrorist attack sept 11 or death of princess Di


What are the 3 flashbulb memory models?

1) photographic model (brown and kulik, 1977) paralleling now print theory

2) comprehensive model. (Conway 1994) 3 main procedures over time. Prior knowledge, personal importance, affective reaction

3) integrative emotional model. Surprise is a direct determent of fm


What does Ost 2008 et al say about flashbulb memory?

Surprisingly inaccurate


What do Talarico and Rubin (2003) say about flashbulb memories?

FbMs aren't fully formed at the moment they learn of the event


What does Neisser say about FbMs?

The term flashbulb is misleading as memories are not so much momentary snapshots as enduring benchmarks. They are the places where we line up our own lives with the course of history itself and say 'I was there'


Describe memories across a lifetime

Rubin, wetzler and Nebes (1986)
-infantile amnesia: lack of personal memories for the first 3 years of life
-reminiscence bump: high number of memories coming from age 15-30

Cross cultures Conway et al 2005


Describe infant amnesia

(Howe Courage, 1997)
A developed sense of self is necessary to form autobiographical memories- age 2, provides schemata

2003: self recognisers had better memory for personal events


What is the social-cultural theory of infantile amnesia ?
(Fivush and Nelson 2004)

Language and culture central to autobiographical memory development.
Harley and Reese 1999- childhood memories

Elaboration provides a chance to 'rehearse' more common with western mothers


What are the main parts of the reminiscence bump?
Rubin et al (1998)

Novelty: effort after meaning, proactive interference, distinctive memories

Stability: stable Periods of life more likely to serve as models for future events

Life script: coherent account of who we are and how we got here (emotionally intense, typically well coded) - falling in love, uni, marriage, children


Describe Glück and Blucks (2008) study on 'life narrative hypothese

3541 like events
659 ptps age 50-90
Rate memories on emotional valence, personal importance, sense of control

Bump found for only positive memories with high control.

Autobiographical memories from this period are important in creating positive life narrative.


Explain cascading reminiscence bump

Having a bump for something that is not directly related to you. Eg having a bump for sings that were released before you were born as your parents played it a lot when you were a child.


What do Bohn and Bernsten (2011) suggest?

That the RB is based on cultural life scripts. Culturally shared expectations of the timing of life events in prototypical life course.

Asking 10yos about their personal future lead to a RB in young adulthood. Powerful organising influence of culture on autobiographical memory


What do wang and Conway argue? (2006)

Memory does not just occur. In the head but also in social context of social-cultural participation during which participants construct their life story


Individuals with an autonomous self construct....

May be more sensitive to events unique to the self


Individuals who focus on the more relational aspects of self...

May be more sensitive to events involving social interaction and collective events


Describe one difference between the recollection of memory in Caucasian and Chinese individuals

U.S. Ptps provided Voluminous, specific, self focused and emotionally elaborate memories.
Chinese ptps provided brief accounts, centred on collective activities, general routines and emotionally neutral events


What is the traditional approach? (Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996)

Storehouse metaphor

Materials: recent and arbitrary
Learning: of intentional
Of interest: number of accessible items
Motivation: arbitrary instruction
Focus on: accuracy


What do Dudukovic, Marsh and Tversky (2004) say about storytelling

Retelling stories in an entertaining way can distort subsequent long-term memory, even when the goal is accuracy


What do Middleton and Brown (2005) state about memory?

Reject the storehouse view in favour of remembering social action


Describe children's autobiographical memory

Children learn specific narrative devices through participating in conversations about experiences


What is HSAM?

Highly superior autobiographical memory


What did Elizabeth Loftus famously say?

Memory has a superiority complex