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Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (43):
1

Natural

Produced or existing in nature

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Artificial selection (selective breeding )

Individuals with the desirable traits are mated to produce offspring with those traits (ex.dogs-same genus and species but they look different )SPECIFIC TRAITS ARE SHOWN

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Artificial selections of wild mustard

By selecting different parts of the plant to accentuate,breeders have obtained these varieties. (Broccoli cabbage kale cauliflower kohlrabi )

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What is hybridization ?

Crossing two individuals with different desirable traits to produce offspring with a combination of both traits(diff specie or trait!)

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Hybridization in cows

Ex: Santa Gertrudis cattle-cross between English shorthorn cattle(good beef) and Brahman cattle from India (highly resistant to heat and humidity)

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Hybridization in potatoes

Burbanks hybrid crosses combined the disease resistance of one part of one plant with the food producing capacity in another

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Male lion with female tiger

Liger

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Male tiger with female lion

Tigon

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Benefits of selective breeding

Produce crop resistant to disease and are bigger. Produce animals that have less fat and seedless fruits

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Pros of selective breeding

Obtains favorable characteristics in offspring (strength size color hardiness and temp)

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Cons of selective breeding

Results are not guaranteed (variation in meiosis and sexual reproduction ), selectively breeding for certain traits may overtime lead to problems with other traits , cause sterility

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Inbreeding

Selective breeding of closely related organisms

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Risk of inbreeding

Recessive disorders are more likely to be expressed , an increase disease that occurs when the offspring receivers a "bad" gene from each parent, greater chance of recessive alleles being expressed (disease)

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Inbreeding pros

Unusually used when numbers of available organisms are small

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Inbreeding cons

Much higher chance is recessive alleles being expressed ,may cause disease such as hemophilia and lead to sterility

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Examples of inbreeding

Hip dysplasia in German shepherds (pure breed ) sterility in an inbred plant

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What are GMOs?

Any organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means, said to be transgenic , contains DNA from different species

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What are benefits of genetically modified plants and animals?

GM plants can produce natural pesticides , increase vitamins control, to make food last longer or resist the cold

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Pigs that glow

Green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene from jelly fish have been put into pigs, advancement have made it possible to target gene expression in eyes cells only, genes for other pigments have been introduced into animal cells

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HGH(human growth hormone)

By adding the gene for HGH to a mouse the size with greatly increase

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GM Salmon

Two salmon can be the same age and GM salmon can grow twice the rate,more difficult to genetically modify animals than plants, growth increase is food increase , greater risk natural population if GM salmon escape to wild

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Golden rice

Genetically modified to contain nutrients called beta carotene in daffodils

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GM Corn

Genes from bacteria this produce natural pesticide

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Risk of GMO

The creation of allergies, fear of long term effect

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GMO viruses

Good- can be used to make vaccines Bad- can be used in biological warfare

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GMO PROS

Get desired trait faster, can combine diff species , once in sex cells passed to next generation

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GMO CONS

Dk long term effects, can be harmful, may cause allergy, may be hard to find/isolate gene

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DNA Technology

The branch of biotechnology where scientists actually manipulate(alter) the genomes of organisms at the molecular level

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Artificial

Made by human work

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Why would altering DNA affect our traits?

DNA codes for the protein that determines our traits

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Vectors

A way to get genes from one organism into another (ex.bacterial plasmids and viruses )

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Bacterial chromosome vs human chromosome

Bacterial chromosomes are circular while humans are x shaped

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Bacteria have plasmids

Plasmids are circular DNA molecules that are found in some bacteria . Scientists alter the genetic instructions found in the plasmids and use them as vectors

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How do bacteria reproduce?

Asexual reproduction

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Genetic engineering

Scientist can target and identify a gene, cut the desired gene with restriction enzymes, the gene is combined with the DNA of another organism(gene splicing), the recombinant DNA is inserted into the cell of another organism

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What is gene splicing ?

When a gene is combines with the DNA of another organism

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What is the new DNA called after gene splicing?

Recombinant DNA

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What is the end result of genetic engineering?

A genetically engineered organism,GMO,transgenic

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Applications of genetic engineering(example)part 1-4

Scientists genetically alter the DNA of bacteria to produce human proteins like insulin

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Restriction enzymes part1

DNA is removed from the human cell and insulin gene is cut with this

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Restriction enzymes part2

Plasmids is removed from a bacterial cell and is cut with this same enzyme

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Recombinant DNA part3

Insulin gene and bacterial plasmid are spliced together, the new DNA is inserted into bacterial cells

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Asexual reproduction part4

Bacteria undergo this and are capable of creating insulin