Intro To Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Biology b > Intro To Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro To Nutrition Deck (52):
0

Autotrophs

"Self feeding" make organic compounds from inorganic raw materials by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis EX plants algae

1

Heterotrophs

"Other feeding " obtain organic material from other living organisms by creating greater surface area EX. Animals fungi protist and bacteria

2

Photosynthesis equation

CO2+H2O+sunlight-->C6H12O6+H2O+O2

3

Physical digestion

Food is cut ,ground and torn to help speed into the breakdown of food in most organisms by creating greater surface area

4

Chemical digestion

The food molecules are broken down chemically by digestive enzymes

5

Enzymatic hydrolysis

Chemical breakdown of food by adding water

6

Intracellular digestion

Occurs within cells , only type of digestion in unicellular organisms(ameba and paramecium ...), also occurs in multicellular organisms(hydra)

7

Extracellular digestion

Occurs outside of the cells(multicellular organisms)

8

Macronutrients

Too big to enter cell without being broken down first into building blocks( carbohydrates, lipids , and proteins)

9

Building blocks of carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (simple sugars) usually seen as a hexagon or pentagon

10

Building blocks of lipids

3 fatty acids and glycerol ( usually seen an E formation)

11

Building blocks of protein

Amino acids( seen with NH2 and COOH- carboxyl)

12

Carbohydrates function

Energy source and some help fight cancer causing agents

13

Carbohydrates sources

Sugar(candy,fruit) starch( bread pasta rice ) veggie and whole grains

14

Lipids function

Energy storage, insulation, cell membranes and hormones

15

Lipids sources

Meat,oils

16

Other info about lipids

Fat in diets is less than 30% , stay away from saturated fats (solid at room temp)

17

Proteins function

Provide amino acids for muscles ,organs, antibodies and enzymes, and some hormones

18

Protein sources

Meat ,fish, poultry, eggs, beans, nuts

19

Essential amino acids

8 of them that your body cannot produce but needs to be in your diet,without them you are not able to make some kinds of proteins and this can cause certain diseases

20

Why is water important?

It is a large percentage of our body weight and has a role in many chemical reactions, substances in body are dissolved(blood plasma)

21

Micronutrients

Small enough to fit through cell without being broken down , vitamins and minerals

22

Vitamins

Act as coenzymes or enzyme helpers, they are important in chemical reactions in your body

23

Vitamin C function

Neurotransmitter ,hormones,prevents cancer,degenerates diesease

24

Vitamin c deficiency

Scurvy(swollen gums,burning mouth and loose teeth)

25

Vitamin c sources

Citrus fruits,berries,melon,tomatoes,green peppers,and leafy green veggies

26

Vitamin k functions

Essential for blood clotting

27

Vitamin k deficiency

Bruising and slow blood clotting

28

Vitamin k sources

Cooked dark veggies (kale,broccoli,spinach)kiwi and olive oils

29

Vitamin a function

Maintains skin and mucus membranes and lining of digestive tract

30

Vitamin a deficiency

Follicular hyperkeratosis

31

Vitamin a sources

Carotenoids , milk, dark veggies

32

Vitamin b-1(thiamine) Function

Coenzymes for carbohydrates metabolism

33

Vitamin b-1(thiamine) Deficiency

Beriberi,Herat disease , confusion , possible relationship with Alzheimer's

34

Vitamin b-1(thiamine) Sources

Whole grains ,lean pork,legumes

35

Minerals

Inorganic compounds that must be supplied by the diet

36

Calcium function

Bone growth

37

Calcium deficiency

Osteoporosis ,hypertension or high blood pressure, colon cancer

38

Calcium sources

Dairy products, kale and broccoli

39

Iodine function

Necessary for metabolism

40

Iodine deficiency

Goiter, impairs growth and neurological development

41

Iodine sources

Iodine in soil and iodized salt

42

Iron function

Carries oxygen and forms hemoglobin

43

Iron deficiency

Anemia, low hemoglobin and low birth weight babies

44

Iron sources

Grain products,meat,poultry,and fish

45

Zinc function

Present in nucleus;plays major role in regulation

46

Zinc deficiency

Reduced immune function ,skin legions and depressed growth

47

Zinc sources

Red and white meat,shellfish

48

Malnourishment

Sufficient calorie intake and not enough nutrient

49

Undernourishment

Lack of sufficient calories in available food,little or no ability to move or work, dies from lack of energy

50

Marasmus(SAT II)

Emaciation caused by lack of proteins in calories

51

Kwashiorkor(SATII)

Lack of sufficient proteins, failure of neural development in infants and lead to learning disabilities