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Flashcards in Birth-1st Year Deck (31):

Birth to 2 or 3 Months

Strong Moro Reflex


1 Month

startle response sound

moves in response to voice

visual preference for humans

fisted hands, thumb is useless

palmar grasp reflex present--no voluntary grasp


1-2 Months

integration of: extensor thrust
neonatal positive supporting
flexor withdrawal


2 Months

Integration of: Proprioceptive Placing (UE)
Proprioceptive Placing (LE)
Spontaneous Stepping
Galant's Response (may persist)

hands more open, no voluntary grasp, can't bring hands to midline

can track from side to midline, midline to side, beginning to track across midline


2-3 Months


Cries to get attention

Crying decreases with adult eye contact

Vocalizes to express pleasure

Listens to voices

May smile


2-5 Months

Integration of Sucking


3 Months

Integration of Rooting Reaction

can bring hands to midline
holds object and briefly looks at it
follows moving object 180 degrees

ulnar palmar grasp


3-4 Months

Onset of: Visual Placing (UE)


3-5 Months

Onset of: Visual Placing (LE)


4 Months

Integration of: Crossed Extension
Neonatal Neck Righting
(stops with neck righting
with rotation along bod

Onset: Protective Extension LE downward

looks at hand/hands near face
may take toys to mouth
mostly bidextrous
primitive squeeze grasp
bilateral reaching, but elbows not fully ext


4-5 Months

Integration of: Neonatal Body on Body
(segmental rolling appears)
Traction Response
Palmar Grasp

Turns head towards a voice

Vocalizes, laughs, and babbles

Excited by food


4-6 Months

Integration of: Asymmetrical Tonic Neck
Neck on Body
Body on Body


5 Months

Onset: Tilting/Balance Reaction-Prone

more accurate reach, grasp and retention present
voluntary palmar grasp
transfers objects from one had to other by pulling it out (no purposeful release)
objects to mouth


5-6 Months

Integration of Moro

Landau Peaks


6 Months

Onset: Amphibian

accurate reach with complete elbow ext
radial palmar grasp emerging
plays with feet in supine
holds arms out to be picked up
tight grip
pick up 1inch cube, hold bottle


6-7 Months

Babbles and Responds to Name

Enjoys Mirror

Lively Response to Familiar People

Onset: Protective Extension UEs forward


6-9 Months

Onset: Positive Support- Weight Bearing


7 Months

Onset: Protective Extension UEs -sideways

begins unilateral reaching
still bidexterous
radial palmar grasp stable
inferior scissors grasp
develops dissociation of finger movements


7-8 Months

Onset: Tilting/Balance Reaction -Supine


8 Months

Integration of Tonic Labyrinthine (unknown)

uses supination when in stable position
radial digital grasp with wrist in neutral
pushes, bites, chews toys
scissors grasp with thumb adducted to index finger and forearm for stability


8-9 Months

shouts or vocalizes to gain attentions

vocalizes syllables

shows initial separation concern

desires to be with people


8-12 Months

Integration of Symmetrical Tonic Neck


9 Months

Integration of Plantar Grasp

holds with hand and feet
beginning to extend wrist with radial digital grasp
stable inferior pincer grasp to prehend pellet
transfers objects hand to hand with voluntary release (practices by dropping a lot)


9-10 Months

Onset of Protective Extension UEs Backward


9-12 Months

Onset: Tilting/Balance Reaction - all fours


10-11 Months

Says repetitive consonant sounds (mama, dada)

Waves hi and bye

Gives objects upon request

Plays peek-a-boo, patty-cake, waves

Has fear of strangers

performs for attention


12 Months

points to 3 body parts

imitates name of objects

vocalizes with intent

uses a word to call a person

actively engages in play

understand and follows simple commands

hits 2 objects together

superior/fine pincer grasp (fingertip and thumb)

tries to build towers

develops concept of weight and making hand adjustments for it

messy eater

holds own cup

cooperates in dressing


12-21 Months

Tilting Reaction-Standing


12-24 Months

Integration of Landau as limb gets heavier


10 Months

approaches objects with extended index finger and pokes things

pincer grasp to pick up crumbs, small things

starts using pointer and thumb to pinch objects

puts two cubes together

helps to pull arm from shirt and leg from pants


11 months

drinks milk from a cup held by someone else
drops objects into container
has more wrist extension
3 jaw chuck for gross grasp
holds out arm for shirt and foot for shoe