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Flashcards in Birth Deck (34):
1

What is the result of a decrease in the progesterone / oestrogen ratio?

1. Induction of parturition
2. Onset of labour
3. Increase in prostraglandin synthesis

2

How does the P:O ratio decrease?

Progesterone decreases and oestrogen increases

Human shows no prepartum decline in progesterone

3

What causes increased P450 C17 hydroxylase activity?

Increase in placental PGE2 synthesis

4

What increases placental PGE2 synthesis?

Prepartum rise in cortisol secretion by fetal adrenal glands

5

What is the sequence for the initiation of parturition?

1. Fetal pituitary signals to fetal adrenal
2. Fetal adrenal increases cortisol and DHAS secretion
3. Cortisol causes maturation of tissues
4. Cortisol and DHAS cause placenta and membranes to secrete more oestrogen
5. Increased oestrogen causes PGF2 synthesis
6. Myometrial contraction, cervical ripening

6

What is the role of corticotrophin releasing hormone in parturition?

Placental product

Coordinates labour

1. Acts on fetal adrenal to increase DHAS secretion
2. Acts on uteroplacental tissues to increase PG availability
3. Acts on myometrium to inhibit contractions by increasing cAMP

7

What are the three stages of labour?

1. Increasing uterine activity and cervical dilation
2. Expulsion of fetus
3. Expulsion of placenta

8

What factors influence timing of delivery?

1. Light/dark cycle
2. Food supply
3. Infection
4. Climate
5. Danger/disturbance

9

What is the effect of growth and activation of the fetal adrenal in late gestation in humans?

Increases fetal availability of cortisol and DHAS

10

What is the result of increased DHAS production in late pregnancy?

Causes a rapid rise in maternal oestrogen levels close to term

11

What is the effect of increased oestrogen availability close to term?

Cervical ripening

Increased uterine contractility via enhanced PG synthesis

12

Is there evidence of removal of progesterone block to myometrial contraction in women?

NO

13

What is the final common pathway to labour in all species?

Shortening of the uterine myocytes

14

What causes the increased expression of actin, myosin and other CAP proteins?

Rising oestrogen levels

Decreasing P:O ratio

15

What is the function of myosin light chain kinase in pregnancy?

Generates ATP for contraction of filaments in uterine myocytes to cause contractions

16

How is MLCK activated?

Calmodulin, which is in turn activated by calcium ions

17

How do intracellular calcium ion concentrations change during contractions?

Increase from 150nM to 500nM by increasing calcium influx through calcium channels and by releasing calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

18

What are uterotonins?

Proteins that stimulate uterine contractions

Increase intracellular calcium

19

How is myometrial activity inhibited?

Inhibited calcium release from intracellular stores or by reducing MLCK activity

Mediated via cAMP or cGMP

20

How is contraction of myocytes coordinated?

Cell-to-cell coupling effected by formation of intercellular GAP junctions between adjacent myocytes

21

What influences expression of connexin proteins?

Steroids and mechanical stretch on the uterus

22

How do connexin numbers change at parturition?

Connexin abundance and the number of GAP junctions increase with the onset of labour

23

What are Braxton-Hicks contractions?

Contractions that precede labour

24

What occurs in the first stage of labour?

Increasing uterine activity and cervical dilatation

Cervix dilates to 10cm

Regular contractions force the baby's head down into the birth canal

25

How long does stage 1 of labour last?

10-12 hours in primagravida

6-8 hours in multigravida

26

What is the second stage of labour?

Expulsion of fetus

Requires voluntary effort as well as uterine contractions

Baby needs to engage, flex and rotate

Lasts 45-120 minutes in primigravida

15-45 minutes in multigravida

27

What is the most dangerous stage for the baby?

Stage 2

28

What is the third stage of labour?

Expulsion of placenta

Uterus continues to contract until the placenta and membranes are delivered

Lasts 10 minutes

29

What may happen if women retain pieces of placenta?

Risk of postpartum haemorrhage

30

What are the indications for induced delivery?

Waters have been broken for over 72 hours

Baby is overdue by 10 days

31

What are the indications for C section

Cephalic-pelvic disproportion

Intrauterine growth restriction

Previous C-section

Uterine damage

32

What changes occur to maternal physiology in the first stage of labour?

Mild hyperventilation may produce light-headedness

Lowered circulating ionised calcium

33

What changes occur to the maternal physiology in the second stage of labour?

Breath holding and forced expiration against a closed glottis

Rise in blood pressure by 30/25mmHg can rupture a berry aneurysm

34

What changes occur to the maternal physiology in the third stage of labour?

Oxytocin causes uterine contractions, which may still be painful

Risk of postpartum haemorrhage