IVF and pre-natal diagnosis Flashcards Preview

Human Reproduction > IVF and pre-natal diagnosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in IVF and pre-natal diagnosis Deck (30):
1

How does age affect embryo outcome in IVF?

Peak live-birth rate at age 30

Then decrease

2

What is the probability of achieving a live birth per menstrual cycle?

25% - 30%

3

What is the probability of pregnancy in normal couples?

80% in one year
90% in two years

4

What is primary infertility?

No previous pregnancy

5

What is secondary infertility?

Previous pregnancy

6

What causes female infertility?

1. Endometriosis
2. PCOS
3. Tubal damage
4. Ovulatory failure
5. Uterus abnormalities
6. Urogenital infection
7. Endocrine disturbances

7

What is oligoasthenoteratospermia?

OATS

1. Low number of sperm
2. Poor motility
3. Abnormal sperm morphology

8

Which drugs are used in IVF?

1. GnRH agonists
2. Gonadotrophins
3. rhCG
4. Crinone/cyclogest/utrogestan

9

What is the role of GnRH agonists in IVF?

1. Pituitary down-regulation
2. Shut down hypothalamic-gonadotrophin axis

10

What is the role of gonadotrophins in IVF?

1. Ovarian stimulation
2. Induce multifollicular growth

11

What is the role of rhCG in IVF?

Trigger to induce final oocyte maturation

12

What is the role of crinone/cyclogest/utrogestan?

Luteal support

Progesterone to ensure endometrial receptivity for implantation of embryo

13

How are oocytes collected?

Vaginal ultrasound

14

How are oocytes prepared for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

Treated with hyaluronidase to remove surrounding cells

15

What are the major risks of artificial reproduction technology?

1. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
2. Multiple pregnancy
3. Drug side-effects
4. Psychological impacts of infertility

16

How are open neural tube defects detected?

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels

17

How can risk of neural tube defects be reduced?

Increasing dietary folic acid

18

What are the three viable chromosomal trisomies?

13, 18 and 21

19

What is Edward syndrome?

Trisomy 18

90% die within one year

20

What is Patau syndrome?

Trisomy 13

85% die within one year

21

What is nuchal translucency?

Collection of fluid behind fetal neck

22

What is increased nuchal translucency seen in?

1. Trisomy 21
2. Congenital heart disease
3. Fetal anaemia
4. Congenital infection
5. Abnormal development of lymphatic system
6. Venous congestion

23

When is chorionic villus sampling performed?

11 weeks

24

How fast is CVS chromosome analysis?

24 hours

No need for culturing

25

When is amniocentesis performed?

16 weeks

26

How fast is amniocentesis analysis?

2 week culture

27

What are the advantages of chorionic villus sampling?

1. Earlier diagnosis

28

What are the disadvantages of chorionic villus sampling?

1. Higher risk of miscarriages (1-2%)
2. Extra-embryonic tissue
3. Possibility of confined placental mosaicism

29

What are the advantages of amniocentesis analysis?

1. Fetal material
2. Lower risk of miscarriage (0.5%)

30

What are the disadvantages of amniocentesis?

Later analysis