Bladder and Prostate Cancer Flashcards Preview

Week 64: Prostate Cancer and BPH > Bladder and Prostate Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bladder and Prostate Cancer Deck (14)
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1

Risk factors for bladder cancer

Smoking
Occupational exposure to dyes, amines
Previous exposure to cyclophosphamide
Previous radiotherapy

2

Signs/symptoms of bladder cancer

Gross/microscopic hematuria
Obstructive voiding symptoms
Irritative voiding symptoms
Pelvic pain (late sx)

3

Treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder CA

Resection +/- perioperative chemotherapy
Intravesical therapy

4

Treatment for muscle invasive bladder CA

Surgery (radical cystectomy) +/- neoadjuvant chemotherapy

5

What do you need to remove in
1. Men
2. Women
for a radical systectomy

1. bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, pelvic lymph nodes
2. bladder, uterus, cervic, ovaries, anterior vagina, pelvic lymph nodes

6

3 intravesical agents

Bacille Calmetter-Guerin (BCG)
Mitomycin
Gemcitabine

7

Function of PSA

Enzyme secreted into the semen
Liquifies it to increase fertility

8

4 risk factors for prostate cancer

African American
Family history (especially first degree relative)
Age
Previous abnormal biopsy

9

3 tests to diagnose prostate cancer

PSA
DRE
Transrectal ultrasound biopsy

10

What can cause elevations in PSA?

Infection
BPH
Infarction
Instrumentation
Inflammation
Prostate cancer

11

How do we grade prostate cancer?

Add the most common and second most common gleason grades
2-6 = low risk
7 = intermediate risk
8-10 = high risk

12

How do we treat
1. Low risk
2. Intermediate and high risk
prostate cancer?

1. Active surveillance
2. Radical therapy, hormone therapy if spread outside capsule or mets

13

4 complications of radiotherapy

Radiation exposure to bladder and rectum
Nerves may be damaged causing erectile dysfunction
Urinary incontinence (leakage)
SMALL possibility of secondary late malignancies

14

What is involved in active surveillance?

Periodic rectal exams and PSA measurements
Repeat prostate biopsies