Introduction to Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Week 64: Prostate Cancer and BPH > Introduction to Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Neoplasia Deck (9)
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Benefits of PSA screening

Simple, reproducible
More Sn and Sp than DRE alone
Early diagnosis and treatment may increase survival/progression
Low cost
Better for monitoring


Risks of PSA screening

False positives and negatives
Side effects of treatment may be unnecessary if cancer does not affect life expectancy


What is the gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis?

Needle biopsy
Guided by a transrectal ultrasound


TMN cancer staging

T: tumor (based on size/location/depth)
N: nodal involvement
M: metastasis (as soon as there are any M it is a stage 4)


Regional node metastases

Nodes in the neighbourhood, would usually be removed with primary at time of surgery
The lymph nodes that are directly draining the tissue where the malignancy is found


What is the most common surgery for prostate cancer?

Radical prostatectomy



Internal radiation therapy
Radioactive material is placed right into or adjacent to the tumor
Can be temporary or permanent
Alone its used mainly for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer
Can combine with external beam radiation for high risk prostate cancer


Androgen deprivation therapy side effects

Hot flashes, loss of libido, fatigue, weight gain, loss of muscle mass, gynecomastia, osteoporosis, increased CV disease, depression


Castration resistant prostate cancer

Prostate cancer that becomes refractory to ADT
Usually occurs withint 12-18 mon