Bladder and Urinary Tract Lecture Sanders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bladder and Urinary Tract Lecture Sanders Deck (73)
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1

(blank) moves urine efficiently into the ureter.

Pyeloureteric peristalsis

2

Peristalsis is initiated by (blank) that drive rhythmic electrical and mechanical events from the renal pelvis to the ureter.

pacemaker cells

3

Peristalsis originates at the border where the (blank) and propagates distally to the renal pelvis.

calyces attach to the base of the papilla (pelvi-calyceal junction, PCJ)

4

Electrical activity and contraction frequency (blank) as muscle is taken from more and more distant sites from the base of papillae. This suggests that the dominant pacemaker in the renal pelvis is at the pelvi-calyceal border.

decrease

5

The force of contractions in the renal pelvis and ureter is influenced by the (blank).

rate of urine flow

6

Blocking urine flow increases pressure in the kidney, and can lead to (blank):distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces usually caused by obstruction of the flow of urine from the kidney. Untreated it causes progressive atrophy of the kidney.

hydronephrosis

7

(blank) form when certain chemicals precipitate.

Stones

8

Where do kidney stones typically get stuck?

> at the ureteric junction of renal pelvis;
as the ureter passes over the iliac vessels;
> at the junction of the ureter and the bladder (vesicoureteric junction).

9

What are the four main types of kidney stones?

calcium-oxalate
struvite
uric acid
cystine

10

What kidney stones are these:
These are the most common kidney stones.  They can be caused by eating too much calcium or vitamin D, some medicines, genetics and other kidney problems. 

calcim oxalate

11

What kidney stones are these:
These stones affect women more than men.  They can grow very large and may harm the kidneys more than other stones.  Having kidney infections often causes struvite stones.

struvite

12

What kidney stones are these:
May be caused by eating too much animal protein or by genetics. 

uric acid

13

What kidney stones are these:
These stones are very rare.  They are caused by cystinuria, a genetic kidney disease.

Cystine

14

Kidney stones form when a (blank) occurs in the normal balance of water, salts, minerals, and other substances found in urine. Other chemical compounds that can form stones in the urinary tract include uric acid and the amino acid cystine. (blank) through reduced fluid intake and strenuous exercise without adequate fluid replacement increase the risk of kidney stones. Some people are more likely to get kidney stones because of a medical condition or family history, as the tendency to form kidney stones may also be inherited. If other people in your family have had them, you may have them too.

change
Dehydration

15

Who is most likely to get a kidney stone?

fat white males who are dehydrated and on drugs with family members that have stones

16

pacemaker cells at the renal pelvis make what happen?

pyelouretal peristalsis

17

Ureteral peristalsis originates
from the (blank) where urine produced in the kidney is collected: the renal pelvis is (blank) to generate pacemaker activity which propagates to the ureter thus determining the propulsion of boluses of urine toward the bladder.

renal pelvis
spontaneously actived

18

The ureter is normally (blank) although latent pacemakers exist at all levels of the pyeloureteral tract which can be excited to fire action potentials and contractions by depolarizing stimuli. Excitation of latent pacemakers by noxious/irritant stimuli can produce antiperistaltic waves of contraction producing urine (blank) toward the kidney.

quiescent
reflux

19

Is the ureter electrically active?

NO

20

(blank) aid in urine flow from renal pelvis to bladder. This involves what kind of muscles?

Peristaltic contractions
Circular muscles that relax and contract

21

In humans does the contraction occur during depolarization or repolarization?

repolarization (its delayed)

22

The bladder is a storage vessel and able to expand, and becomes more (blank) so that pressure will not rise.

compliant

23

What is impermeable to most things?

urothelium

24

What are the two division of the peripheral nervous system?

ANS, enteric

25

(blank) is the Main neural pathways taking sensory information to the central nervous system and bringing secretomotor output to epithelial and muscle tissues. Cell bodies in spinal cord or peripheral ganglia (like the prevertebral ganglia).

ANS (involuntary)

26

(blank) are relay points between the periphery and the central nervous system. Nerve cells in the central nervous system send processes to nerve cell bodies in the ganglia (pre-ganglionic neurons). Cell bodies in ganglia have processes that project to and innervate targets in the periphery (post-gangionic neurons).

autonomic ganglia (pre-vertebral ganglia)

27

(blank) is the nerve taking information from the periphery to more central locations. These nerves provide sensory information from organs to be used in central neural processing.

afferent nerve (neuron)

28

(blank) is the nerve taking information from more central sites: central nervous system or peripheral ganglion and providing control over muscle or epithelial tissues.

efferent nerve (neuron)

29

(blank) is a Substance released from neuron to convey information from neuron to target cell. Main neurotransmitters used in peripheral nervous system are: norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), nitric oxide (NO) and purines (adenosine triphosphate or ATP). Peptide transmitters are also utilized, such as vasoactive intestinal poly peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), and others.

neurotransmitter

30

(blank) is a protein expressed by pre- or post-junctional cell that has high affinity for a neurotransmitter and can transduce neurotransmitter binding to a cellular action.

receptor