Osmotic and Volume Regulation Flashcards Preview

Block 2 Week 5 > Osmotic and Volume Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osmotic and Volume Regulation Deck (62)
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1

When do you get ADH release?

when you have low plasma volume or high plasma osmolarity

2

If you have low plasma volume, how does ADH know to be released?

Venous, atrial and arterial low pressure will trigger reflexes mediated by cardiovascular baroreceptors to let the brain know to release ADH

3

Once you have an increase in ADH what happens to the body?

Plasma ADH increases, tubular permeability to water increase and thus water reabsorption increases

4

If you consume 1 liter of water what will happen?

your plasma osmolality will go done, your adh release will go down and you will excrete water

5

If you consume 1 liter of isotonic saline what will happen?

Your EFV will increase, your ADH will decrease, you will excrete water and your plasma osmolality increases and then finally your ADH increases

6

How do you regulate the EFV?

via Na reabsorption. more salt the greater the EFV.

7

So when you have 67% of sodium leaving and 67% of water leaves then you will still have the same (blank) ie. Ratio of salt to water inside the proximal tubule.

concentration

8

What factors effect the kidney to regulate extracellular fluid volume?

GFR, Aldosterone, natriuretic hormone, peritubular pressure

9

Systems that release extracellular fluid volume regulatory factors are what?

neural and internal elements

10

What sense changes in blood volume?

venous stretch receptors
baroreceptors
intrarenal elements

11

Regulation of volume requires first regulating (blank) followed by regulating water

sodium

12

A decrease of EFV leads to what?

Increased Na reabsorption-> increase Plasma osmolarity -> increased ADH-> increased water reabsorption-> increased EFV

13

If you have decreased EFV then what will increase becaues of it?

sodium reabsorption

14

If you have increased EFV then what will decrease because of it?

sodium reabsorption

15

Why does excess sodium consumption lead to an increase in ECF volume?

Due to maintainance of reabsorption percentage and concentration

16

When you have excess sodium consumption what happens?

your sodium plasma concentration increase which increases your plasma osmolarity which increases your ADH and thirst and water reabsorption as well as shifts fluid from IC to EC compartments and then your ECF volume increases

17

Where is the receptor for aldosterone located?

intracellularly

18

If you have a decrease in sodium or blood volume what hormone will be released?

aldosterone

19

What makes sodium channels and conductance of sodium channels increase?

aldosterone

20

In addition to aldosterone increasing sodium channels and conductance of sodium channels, what else does it do?

Increase sodium potassium pump effectiveness to allow for better sodium reabsorption and increased potassium secretion

21

What does aldosterone do to potassium, hydrogen, and sodium?

increases potassium excretion
increases sodium reabsorption
increases hydrogen excretion
Increase bicarbonate reabsorption

22

If you have excessive aldosterone what will you be in alkalosis or acidosis?

alkalosis

23

What does an increase in Angiotensin II and Increase in Plasma K cause?

Increase in aldosterone (subsequent increase in Na reabsorption, K excretion, H excretion)

24

What will an increase in Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cause?

Increase in aldosterone (subsequent increase in Na reabsorption, K excretion, H excretion)

25

What will a decrease in Sodium cause?

Increase in aldosterone (subsequent increase in Na reabsorption, K excretion, H excretion)

26

What will cause an increase in aldosterone?

increase in angiotensin II
Increase in Plasma K
Increase in ACTH
decrease in Plasma Na

27

What will hypoaldosteronemia cause?

Adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease)
acidosis
hyperkalemia
hypotensin (salt wasting)

28

What will hyperaldosteronemia cause?

Alkalosis
Hypokalemia
Hypertension (usually not over volume expansion)

29

What is the disease associated with adrenal insufficiency?

addison's disease

30

If you have decreased salt plasma and increased potassium and hydrogen in plasma what is going on?

you have adrenal insufficiency so addison's disease