What are the nine regions of the abdomen?
Right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, epigastric, right lumbar, left lumbar, umbilical, right inguinal, left inguinal (iliac), hypogastric (pubic)
What is the location of the abdomen? What is it bound to anterolaterally? What is it bound to superiorly? What is it bound to inferiorly?
Part of the trunk between the thorax and the pelvis
Anterolaterally: the musculoaponeurotic walls
Inferiorly: Muscles of the Pelvis
What is the abdomen suspended between and supported by?
The abdomen is suspended between and supported by two bony rings ( the inferior margin of the thoracic skeleton superiorly and pelvic girdle inferiorly)
Likned by a semi-rigid lumbar vertebral column in the posterior abdominal wall.
Due to the structures that enclose the abdomen, it is able to perform what function?
Enclose and protect its contents while allowing the flexibility between the more rigid thorax and pelvis required by respiration, posture, and locomotion.
What are the two transverse (horizontal) planes and the two sagittal (vertical) planes that pass through the nine regions of the abdominal cavity?
1. Subcostal Plane
2. Transtubercular Plane
1. Midclavicular Plane
2. Midclavicular Plane
At what point do the sagittal planes pass through? Where do the midpoints of the lines join together on each side?
- They usually pass through the midpoint of the clavicles ( approximately 9 cm from the midline) to the midlinguinal points
- Midpoints of the lines join the anterior superior illiac spine and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis
Where does the superior transverse plane pass through?
Where does the inferior transverse plane pass through?
1. inferior border of the 10th costal cartilage on each side
2. Iliac turbles ( located approximately 5 cm posterior to the anterior superior iliac spine on each side) and the body of L5 vertebra
Where is the transplyoric plane found?
Midway between the superior borders of the manubrium and the pubic symphysis ( typical L1 vertebral level)
Commonly the transplyoric plane transect whcih organ? More specifically where?
Pylorus: The distal, more tubular part of the stomach
What are the important structures that the transplyoric plane dissects?
- fundus of the gallbladder
- neck of the pancreas
- Origins of the superior mesenteric artery
- superior portal vein
- root fo the transverse mesocolon
- dudoenojejunal junction
- hila of the kidneys
- What does musculoaponeurotic mean?
- The abdominal wall is musculoaponeurotic except which portion?
- Composed of muscle and an aponeurosis of fibrous connective tissue.
- Posterior abdominal wall
The anterolateral abdominal wall extends from where to where?
Thoracic cage to the pelvis
The anterolateral abdominal wall is bounded superiorly from where and inferiorly to where?
Superiorly: Cartilages of 7th-10th ribs and the xiphoid process
Inferiorly: Inguinal ligament and the superior margins of the anterolateral aspects of the pelvic girdle
* pelvic girdle consists of the iliac crests, pubic crests, and pubic symphysis*
The abdominal wall consists of what components?
- Superficial fascia (subcutaneous tissue) - mainly composed of fat
- muscles and their aponeuroses and deep fascia
- extraperitoneal fat
- parietal peritoneum
The skin attaches loosely to the subcutaneous tissue except where?
*attaches firmly here
The subcutaneous tissue over most of the abdominal wall includes variable amouts of what? The anterolateral abdominal wall is a major site for what?
*In morbid obesity, the fat is many inches thick, often forming one or more sagging folds (panniculi)
Where is the deepest part of the subcutaneous tissue reinforced by many elastic and collagen fibers? What are the two layers of subcutaneous tissue?