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Histology Exam 2 > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (65):
0

How much blood do we have (about)?

5L

1

What are the major components of blood?

Formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets); plasma; and fibrin fibers if clotting

2

What is a hematocrit?

Spun down blood sample to separate by weight (plasma on top, then the buffy coat (platelets and leukocytes), the erythrocytes

3

What percentage of blood is platelet/leukocyte?

1%

4

What percentage of blood is erythrocytes?

45-50%

5

What percent of blood is plasma?

50-55%

6

What is albumin?

60 kDa protein from liver that maintains osmotic pressure of blood (edema if lacking)

7

What are globulins?

80-1000 kDa in size. Alpha and Beta are made in liver and transport. Gamma is made from plasma cells and functions to antibodies of immune defence

8

What are clotting factors?

E.g. fibrinogen and prothrombin, varied in size, from liver, important in the formation of fibrin threads (fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin, thrombin comes from prothrombin)

9

Complement proteins in plasma are?

C1-C9 and vary in size from the liver. function to destroy microorganisms and initiate inflammation

10

What are the three plasma lipoproteins?

CM, VLDL, and LDL. Intestinal epithelial cells, Liver, Liver. 100-500 microns, 25-70 nm, 300 kDa. Transport TAG to liver. Transport TAG from liver to tissue. Transport cholesterol from liver to tissue

11

What is the structure of erythrocytes?

7.5 microns in diameter, anucleate, and biconcave. No organelles. Filled with hemoglobin.

12

What is the erythrocyte concentration for men? For women?

5 million per microliter, 4.5 million per microliter

13

What is the lifespan of RBC?

120 days.

14

How are RBC removed?

Removed by macrophages in spleen, bone marrow, and liver

15

What does RBC do?

Transport O2 and CO2

16

What do RBC stain?

Slight pink due to eosin in H&E. Lighter in the middle due to biconcave nature.

17

What is glycophorin?

An important anchor which is highly gylcosylated giving the outer shell of the RBC a negative charge. Makes them hydrophilic and repulses RBC from one another

18

What proteins are responsible for the RBC shape?

Actin and spectrin

19

T or F: RBC are metabolically active

T; glycolysis

20

T or F: RBC are very flexible

T; capillaries

21

What are reticulocytes?

Immature RBC making up 1-2% of RBC. Still contain residual ribosomes and other organelles. Have a lower level of Hb than mature RBC. Continue to mature in circulation. These stain a mix of color, escaped from bone marrow before being fully matured

22

Hemoglobin and O2 make?

Oxyhemoglobin (bright red)

23

Hemoglobin and CO2 make?

Carbaminohemoglobin (dark red). Leads to cyanosis

24

Hemoglobin and CO make?

Carboxyhemoglobin. Irreversible. Cherry red.

25

What are the two types of anemia?

Hypochromic anemia (iron deficiency and blood loss)
Normochromic anemia (sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis)

26

What is sickle cell disease?

Mishappen RBC due to mutation in Hb, inefficient and inflexible

27

What is hereditary spherocytosis?

Mutation in cytoskeleton (frequently spectrin). Makes it very fragile. Sphere shape (no light middle section)

28

What is polycythemia (erythrocytosis)?

Too many RBC. Altitude and disease can cause this. Increases viscosity which may prevent flow through capillary

29

What are the two types of leukocytes?

Granulocytes and agranulocytes

30

What are the three types of granulocytes?

Neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic (granules stain differently depending on properties/function)

31

What are the two types of agranulocytes?

Monocytes and Lymphocytes

32

Neutrophils (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)

Granulocyte, 3500-7000, 60-70%

33

Eosinophil (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)

Granulocyte, 150-400, 2-4%

34

Basophil (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)

Granulocyte, 50-100, <1%

35

Lymphocyte (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)

Agranulocyte, 1500-2500, 20-25%

36

Monocyte (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)

Agranulocyte, 200-800, 3-8%

37

What granules do neutrophils have?

Azurophilic (primary), Specific (secondary), Tertiary

38

Esoinophils have what granules?

Specific (secondary)

39

Basophils have what granules?

Specific (secondary)

40

Azurophilic/Primary granules function?

Strain blue/green due to oxidation products of methylene blue. They are lysosomes containing various acid hydrolases

41

Specific/Secondary granules function to?

Secreted to external environment. Contain enzymes

42

Tertiary granules function to?

Geltinase and cathepsin are in these and may function to break down fibers in the ground substance to help with movement

43

Lactoferrin and Lysozyme are found in?

Secondary granules of neutrophils and have bactericidal effect

44

What is the function of eosinophils?

Attack parasites

45

Basophils are?

Very similar to mast cells. Affect blood cell permeability and inflammation by releasing secondary granules of heparin and histamine.

46

Properties of neutrophil

60-70% of leukocytes, 12-15 microns in diameter, distinct multilobed segmented nucleus. Has neutrophilic granules.

47

Function of neutrophils

Phagocytose microorganisms

48

What is the Barr body/drumstick appendage?

Inactive X chromosome that is apparent in neutrophil nucleus

49

What is a band cell?

A non-segmented, still maturing neutrophil. High levels in blood would indicate infection. 0-3% of leukocytes

50

Properties or eosinophils

2-4 percent of circulating leukocytes, 12-15 um in diameter. Bilobed nucleus and coarse eosinophilic granules

51

Function of eosinophil

Major basic proteins in granules kills parasitic worms

52

Properties of basophils

<1% of circulating leukocytes, 12-15 um diameter, mulitlobed nucleus, with basophilic granules containing heparin and histamine

53

Function of basophil

Mediate inflammatory responses similar to mast cells. Lead to anaphylaxis in hypersensitive individuals.

54

Properties of monocytes

3-8% of leukocytes, 12-20 um in diameter, KIDNEY shaped nucleus. BASOPHILIC cytoplasm

55

Function of monocytes

Precursor to the cells of MPS that differentiate into CT macrophages (histiocytes?)

56

Properties of lymphocytes

20-25% of leukocytes, small 6-8 um and large 12-18 um. Round or slightly intented nucleus rich in heterochromatin. Dormant cells with very condensed nucleus

57

Three functional categories of lymphocytes

B lymphocytes (B cells) plasma cells
T lymphocytes (T cells) Cytoxic, Helper, Supressor cells
Null cells, circulating stem cells and natural killer cells

58

Properties of platelets/thrombocytes?

0.2-0.4 million per uL. Saucer like. 2-4 um in diameter. Hyalomere-clear peripheral region
Granulomere-Darkly stained central region

59

What is the function of Platelets/Thrombocytes

Function in blood coagulation

60

What is the canalicular system of platelets?

A protein that connects the interior of the cell to the EC space

61

What is the function of the dense tubular system in platelets?

Involved in Ca+2 sequestration (like sarcoplasmic reticulum), contractile

62

Alpha granules in platelets contain?

Fibrinogen and PDGF (platelet derived growth factor)

63

Delta granules of platelets contain?

Dense bodies with serotonin and ADP (ADP attracts other platelets)

64

Lamba granules in platelets contain?

Lysosomes containing acid hydrolyses to break down the blood clot