Flashcards in Blood Deck (65):
How much blood do we have (about)?
What are the major components of blood?
Formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets); plasma; and fibrin fibers if clotting
What is a hematocrit?
Spun down blood sample to separate by weight (plasma on top, then the buffy coat (platelets and leukocytes), the erythrocytes
What percentage of blood is platelet/leukocyte?
What percentage of blood is erythrocytes?
What percent of blood is plasma?
What is albumin?
60 kDa protein from liver that maintains osmotic pressure of blood (edema if lacking)
What are globulins?
80-1000 kDa in size. Alpha and Beta are made in liver and transport. Gamma is made from plasma cells and functions to antibodies of immune defence
What are clotting factors?
E.g. fibrinogen and prothrombin, varied in size, from liver, important in the formation of fibrin threads (fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin, thrombin comes from prothrombin)
Complement proteins in plasma are?
C1-C9 and vary in size from the liver. function to destroy microorganisms and initiate inflammation
What are the three plasma lipoproteins?
CM, VLDL, and LDL. Intestinal epithelial cells, Liver, Liver. 100-500 microns, 25-70 nm, 300 kDa. Transport TAG to liver. Transport TAG from liver to tissue. Transport cholesterol from liver to tissue
What is the structure of erythrocytes?
7.5 microns in diameter, anucleate, and biconcave. No organelles. Filled with hemoglobin.
What is the erythrocyte concentration for men? For women?
5 million per microliter, 4.5 million per microliter
What is the lifespan of RBC?
How are RBC removed?
Removed by macrophages in spleen, bone marrow, and liver
What does RBC do?
Transport O2 and CO2
What do RBC stain?
Slight pink due to eosin in H&E. Lighter in the middle due to biconcave nature.
What is glycophorin?
An important anchor which is highly gylcosylated giving the outer shell of the RBC a negative charge. Makes them hydrophilic and repulses RBC from one another
What proteins are responsible for the RBC shape?
Actin and spectrin
T or F: RBC are metabolically active
T or F: RBC are very flexible
What are reticulocytes?
Immature RBC making up 1-2% of RBC. Still contain residual ribosomes and other organelles. Have a lower level of Hb than mature RBC. Continue to mature in circulation. These stain a mix of color, escaped from bone marrow before being fully matured
Hemoglobin and O2 make?
Oxyhemoglobin (bright red)
Hemoglobin and CO2 make?
Carbaminohemoglobin (dark red). Leads to cyanosis
Hemoglobin and CO make?
Carboxyhemoglobin. Irreversible. Cherry red.
What are the two types of anemia?
Hypochromic anemia (iron deficiency and blood loss)
Normochromic anemia (sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis)
What is sickle cell disease?
Mishappen RBC due to mutation in Hb, inefficient and inflexible
What is hereditary spherocytosis?
Mutation in cytoskeleton (frequently spectrin). Makes it very fragile. Sphere shape (no light middle section)
What is polycythemia (erythrocytosis)?
Too many RBC. Altitude and disease can cause this. Increases viscosity which may prevent flow through capillary
What are the two types of leukocytes?
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
What are the three types of granulocytes?
Neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic (granules stain differently depending on properties/function)
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
Monocytes and Lymphocytes
Neutrophils (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)
Granulocyte, 3500-7000, 60-70%
Eosinophil (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)
Granulocyte, 150-400, 2-4%
Basophil (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)
Granulocyte, 50-100, <1%
Lymphocyte (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)
Agranulocyte, 1500-2500, 20-25%
Monocyte (cell type, number/uL, % of WBC)
Agranulocyte, 200-800, 3-8%
What granules do neutrophils have?
Azurophilic (primary), Specific (secondary), Tertiary
Esoinophils have what granules?
Basophils have what granules?
Azurophilic/Primary granules function?
Strain blue/green due to oxidation products of methylene blue. They are lysosomes containing various acid hydrolases
Specific/Secondary granules function to?
Secreted to external environment. Contain enzymes
Tertiary granules function to?
Geltinase and cathepsin are in these and may function to break down fibers in the ground substance to help with movement
Lactoferrin and Lysozyme are found in?
Secondary granules of neutrophils and have bactericidal effect
What is the function of eosinophils?
Very similar to mast cells. Affect blood cell permeability and inflammation by releasing secondary granules of heparin and histamine.
Properties of neutrophil
60-70% of leukocytes, 12-15 microns in diameter, distinct multilobed segmented nucleus. Has neutrophilic granules.
Function of neutrophils
What is the Barr body/drumstick appendage?
Inactive X chromosome that is apparent in neutrophil nucleus
What is a band cell?
A non-segmented, still maturing neutrophil. High levels in blood would indicate infection. 0-3% of leukocytes
Properties or eosinophils
2-4 percent of circulating leukocytes, 12-15 um in diameter. Bilobed nucleus and coarse eosinophilic granules
Function of eosinophil
Major basic proteins in granules kills parasitic worms
Properties of basophils
<1% of circulating leukocytes, 12-15 um diameter, mulitlobed nucleus, with basophilic granules containing heparin and histamine
Function of basophil
Mediate inflammatory responses similar to mast cells. Lead to anaphylaxis in hypersensitive individuals.
Properties of monocytes
3-8% of leukocytes, 12-20 um in diameter, KIDNEY shaped nucleus. BASOPHILIC cytoplasm
Function of monocytes
Precursor to the cells of MPS that differentiate into CT macrophages (histiocytes?)
Properties of lymphocytes
20-25% of leukocytes, small 6-8 um and large 12-18 um. Round or slightly intented nucleus rich in heterochromatin. Dormant cells with very condensed nucleus
Three functional categories of lymphocytes
B lymphocytes (B cells) plasma cells
T lymphocytes (T cells) Cytoxic, Helper, Supressor cells
Null cells, circulating stem cells and natural killer cells
Properties of platelets/thrombocytes?
0.2-0.4 million per uL. Saucer like. 2-4 um in diameter. Hyalomere-clear peripheral region
Granulomere-Darkly stained central region
What is the function of Platelets/Thrombocytes
Function in blood coagulation
What is the canalicular system of platelets?
A protein that connects the interior of the cell to the EC space
What is the function of the dense tubular system in platelets?
Involved in Ca+2 sequestration (like sarcoplasmic reticulum), contractile
Alpha granules in platelets contain?
Fibrinogen and PDGF (platelet derived growth factor)
Delta granules of platelets contain?
Dense bodies with serotonin and ADP (ADP attracts other platelets)