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DMD 5243 > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (62):
1

functions of blood

transportation, regulation, protection

2

average blood volume

4-6 L

3

normal blood temperature

38 C or 100.4 F

4

pH of blood

7.35 - 7.45

5

t/f. blood is highly viscous.

t

6

hemocrit

percent of blood volume made of rbcs
males - 40-54%
females - 37-47%

7

percent plasma in blood

55%

8

percent buffy coat

less than 1%

9

percent erythrocytes in blood

44%

10

buffy coat

leukocytes and platelets

11

blood doping

donating rbcs to yourself
favorable affects performance
very dangerous - increased blood viscosity

12

composition of plasma

water - 92%
proteins - 7%
other solutes likes electrolytes and waste

13

proteins in plasma

albumin - 60%
globulins - 35%
fibrinogen - 4%
reg proteins 1%

14

hemoglobin

red pigment
binds and transports o2 and co2

15

abundance of rbcs per 1L whole blood

males - 4.5-6.3 mil
females - 4.2-5.5 mil

16

characteristics of rbcs

no nuc or organelles
biconcave disks
hemoglobin
stacks called rouleaux
bendable

17

life cycle of an erythrocyte

formation in bone marrow
circulate in bloodstream for 120 days
aged erythrocytes phagocytosed in liver and spleen
heme is recycled/secreted by bile in liver
membrane proteins and globilins are broken down and reused

18

hemogolobin structure

quaternary
4 globular proteins, each with one molecule of heme and iron ion

19

hemoglobin breakdown

phagocytes break it down:
globular proteins into AA
heme to biliverdin
iron

20

hemoglobinuria

Hb breakdown products in urine due to excess hemolysis in bloodstream

21

hematuria

whole rbcs in urine due to kidney or tissue damage

22

breakdown of biliverdin

biliverdin (green) is converted into bilirubin (yellow) then is excreted by liver (bile)

23

iron recycling

once removed from Hb, it goes to transport proteins or storage proteins

24

erythropoiesis

myeloid tissue
stem cells to mature rbcs

25

what do you need to make rbcs

AA, iron, vit B12 and B6, folic acid

26

erythropoietin

stimulating hormone for erythropoiesis

27

evolution of stem cells to rbcs

from red bone marrow, you get hemocytoblasts, then myeloid stem cells, proerythroblast, erythroblast, reticulocyte (loses nucleus), erythrocyte (rbc)

28

polycythemia

too many erythrocytes (ex: blood doping)

29

anemia

too few rbcs = low o2 levels
iron deficiency anemia
sickle cell anemia

30

blood types

ABO, Rh

31

type AB

has AB antigens, no antibodies
universal recipient

32

type O

has no antigens, both AB antibodies
universal donor

33

Rh factor dilema

If a mom is Rh-, then has a baby with Rh+, the mom will give birth to her first healthy child, however she will develop Rh+ antibodies. When she has her second baby who is Rh+, the mom's antibodies will kill the baby's rbc. can prevent with RhoGAM shot.

34

agglutination

test to see if blood types are compatible

35

leukocyte characteristics

larger than erythrocytes
no Hb
have nucleus and organelles
(wbcs)

36

wbc functions

initiate immune response
defend against pathogens
remove toxins and wastes
attack abnormal cells

37

diapedesis

wbcs leave the bloodstream and enter tissues

38

chemotaxis

wbc are attracted to site of infection

39

neutrophil

granulocyte
50-70% of wbcs
first to attack
phagocytizes pathogens

40

eosinophil

granulocyte
2-4% of wbcs
destroys paracytes with toxic compounds

41

basophil

granulocyte
less than 1% of wbcs
release histamine and heparin (dialate blood and prevent clotting)

42

lymphocyte

agranulocyte
20-30% of wbcs
larger than rbcs
T/B cells and natural killers
migrates in and out of blood, resides in lymph tissue

43

monocyte

agranulocyte
2-8% of wbcs
becomes macrophage
phagocytotizes pathogens and debris

44

b lymphocytes

humoral immunity
differentiate into plasma
synthesize antibodies

45

t lymphocytes

cell mediated immunity
attack foreign cells directly

46

natural killer cells

detect and destroy abnormal tissue (cancers)
does not look for a tag

47

wbc production

myeloid stem cells - all wbc except lymphocytes
lymphoid stem cells - lymphopoiesis

48

normal wbc count

5k-10k per liter of blood

49

leukocytosis

high wbc count

50

leukopenia

low wbc count

51

leukemia

high abnormal leukocytes
cancer cells take over bone marrow and slow production of eythrocytes and throbocytes

52

thrombocytes

cell fragments (platelets)
live for 8-12 days until removed by spleen

53

platelet count

150k-500k per microliter
thrombocytopenia - low platelet
thrombocytosis - high platelet

54

functions of platelets

release clotting chemicals
temporarily patch damaged vessel walls
reduce size of a break in the vessel wall

55

hemostasis

cessation of bleeding in 3 + 1 steps

56

vascular phase

trauma, then 30 min later, blood vessel will shrink/contract

57

platelet phase

the cut happens, then a reaction occurs that makes platelets spiky and sticky to form a patch

58

coagulation phase

13 blood factors will enter
common pathway:
factor 10 from in/extrinsic pathway will stimulate prothrobinase which will stimulate prothrombin into thrombin
thrombin will stimulate fibrinogen into fibrin that will form bt platelets to form coagulation

59

intrinsic pathway

stimulate platelets that accumulated in previous step

60

extrinsic pathway

tissue damages itself (faster with fewer steps

61

retraction phase

platelets stick to fibrin meshwork, then contract

62

hemopoisis

production of formed elements (erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis, leukopoiesis)