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Flashcards in Epithelium And CT Deck (49):
1

Hematoxylin & Eosin

The most common histological stain
Stains nuclei blue, cytoplasm pink or red, collagen and muscle pink

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Where does epithelial tissue come from?

All 3 germ layers

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What is epithelial tissue

Closely adhering sheets of cells that are
Avascular
Uninucleate, polyhedral, polarized
Separated with basement memb
Can do turnover

4

Components of the basement membrane

Collagen (type 4 or 7)
Proteoglycans
Laminin, enactin, fibronectin
Reticular fibers (CT)

5

Where is epithelial tissue?

Covers body surfaces
Lines intestinal cavities
In various organs or glands
Liens ducts

6

What does epithelial tissue do?

Acts as a BARRIER
(Protects, absorbs, secrets, transports, contracts, filters, sensory - past cfs)

7

Squamous

Thin, flat cell shape

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Cuboidal

Rounded cube like cell shape

9

Columnar

Tall cell shape

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Transitional

A mix of cell shapes with umbrella cells at the top
In urinary system to expand and recoil

11

3 layer types

Simple, stratified, pseudostratified

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Simple squamous

Central body cavities, lining of heart and blood vessels, portions of kidney tubercles, inner lining cornea, exchange surfaces of lungs

Reduce friction, controls vessel permeability, absorbs and secretes

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Simple cuboidal

Glands, ducts, portions of kidney tubercles, thyroid gland

Little protection, secrete and absorb

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Simple columnar epithelium

Lining of stomach, intestine, gall bladder, uterine tubes, collecting ducts of kidneys

Protect, secrete, absorb

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Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, portions of male reproductive tract

Protect secretion, move mucus with cilia

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Stratified squamous epithelium

Surface of skin, lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, and vagina

Produces physical protection against abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attack

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Luminal surface modifications

Microvilli, stereocilia, cilia

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Microvilli

Finger like projections of cytoplasm
Found on the brush border
Enhances absorption

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Stereocilia

Longer microvilli
In epididymis, vas deferens, sensory epithelium of the ear

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Cilia

Elongated, motile extension
Moves fluid and particles
Dynein and atpase activity

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What do cells need for protein secretion?

Well developed rough ER
Very polar

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What do cells need for mucin production?

Well developed ER and Golgi
Large, clear, apical vessicles

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Mucin

Proteoglycan, about 85% carb
Hydrophilic
Becomes mucus when fully hydrated

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What do cells need for lipid secretion?

Well developed smooth ER
Free lipid in vacuoles

25

Merocrine glands

Deliver product by vesicles
Exit by exocytosis

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Holocrine glands

Product is accumulated and released under apoptosis

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Apocrine glands

Product is released with small portion of cytoplasm in envelope of plasma membrane

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Type of secretory products

Mucus - viscous, slimy, glycosylated secretions
Serous - watery, poorly or no glycosylated secretions

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Classification of multicellular glands

Based on branching (compound) or non branching (simple), shape of secretory portion (tubular or acinar), complexity (coiled or branched)

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Major structural constituent of the body

Connective tissue

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Intercellular elements and few cells

Connective tissue

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What does connective tissue consist of?

Support cells that produce an abundant extracellular matrix consisting of connective tissue fibers, ground substance, extracellular fluid

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Collagen fibers

Flexible with high tensile strength made of tropocollagen (triple helix) with a repeating motif

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Type one collagen

Supporting tissue providing mechanical support and tensile strength

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Type two collagen

Found in hyaline cartilage

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Type III collagen

Reticulin and branched network

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Type four collagen

Contributes to mesh of basement membrane

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Type seven collagen

Anchoring fibrils the link to the basement membrane

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Reticulin

Type 3 collagen
Narrow, not bundled, mesh like pattern

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Elastic fibers

Composed of elastic core and fibrillin microfibrils
Thinner than collagen
Can be branched
Produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells

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Ground substance

Viscous, slippery
Diffuses nutrients and wastes, lubricant, barrier

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Proteoglycans

Protein core
Covalently bound glycosaminoglycans

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Connective tissue proper

Loose and dense

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Loose CT

Collagen, elastic, watery mix
Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, fat cells

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Dense CT

Few cells, abundant fibers
Resistance and protection

46

Adipose tissue

Specialized CT
Cushions, insulates, stores energy, water, and hormones

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White adipose tissue

Spherical/polyhedral
Very vascular

48

Brown adipose tissue

Numerous blood vessels and mitochondria, polygonal, smaller

49

Two types of sectioning

Longitudinal and transverse