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Flashcards in blood Deck (17)
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1

what are the cells in blood? (45%)

RBC=erythrocytes
WBC=leucocytes
platelets=thrombocytes

2

what are the components of plasma? (55%)

ECF
water
electrolytes
organic molecules
-glucose, fatty acids, glycerides, aa etc.
plasma proteins

3

what are the 4 plasma proteins?

albumins (60%)
-oncotic pressure
-lipid transport
globulins (35%)
-transport:ions, hormones, lipids
-immune functions
fibrinogen (4%)
-clotting
regulatory proteins (1%)
-enzymes, hormones

4

what is blood volume for men & women?

males = 70ml/kg
females = 60ml/kg

5

what is the morphology of RBC?

6-8 microm diameter
biconcave disc
large SA
permit rapid gas transfer
bend in narrow capillaries
can expand to accommodate fluid in hypotonic solutions
older = more fragile

6

describe RBC turnover

formed in bone marrow
lifespan= 120 days
old removed from circulation and broken down by MPS system (spleen)
breakdown products recycled
haemoglobin
-protein -aa pool
-haem ->iron, biliverin-bilirubin
bilirubin conjugated in liver & excreted in bile as pigment

7

what is erythropoiesis

stages in RBC formation
red bone marrow
reg by erythropoietin
during development:
-reduction in cells size & regression of nucleus
-folic acid & vit B12 rn
-increase in haemoglobin content
-iron rn

8

how is O2 transported?

haemoglobin

9

how is CO2 transported?

carbonic anhydrase
bicarbonate prod.
carbamino compounds

10

describe the structure of haemoglobin

globular protein
MW=68,000
2 alpha, 2 beta chains
4 haem groups:
-porphyrin ring
-iron atom
Fe reversibly binds O2

11

what is a neutrophil?

WBC
granulocyte
acute inflammation
phagocytic
non-specific defence

12

what is a basophil?

WBC
granulocyte
circulating mast cell
produces heparin, histamine

13

what is an eosinophil?

WBC
granulocyte
allergic reactions etc.

14

what is a monocyte?

WBC
agranulocyte
becomes macrophage

15

what is a lymphocyte?

WBC
agranulocyte
cell-mediated immunity (T) and humoral immunity (B)

16

what are platelets?

derived from megakaryocytes
cellular fragments
2micom diameter
involved in haemostasis
release vasoconstrictors
form platelet plug
source of phospholipid for coagulation
150-400x10^9 litre

17

what is Rh-incompatibility?

if Rh- person receives Rh+ blood they will develop anti-Rh antibodies
don't affect person unless Rh- female has 2 Rh+ babies
-haemolytic disease