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Flashcards in Blood Chp.17 Deck (51):
1

What is an erythrocyte and their function?

Erythrocytes are red blood cells. Erythrocytes pick up and deliver oxygen throughout the body.

2

What is hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is a blood protein.

3

What is Hematocrit?

Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.

4

What is hemoglobin concentration?

The amount of hemoglobin in a specific volume of blood.

5

What is an average persons hematocrit?

Males: 42-52%
Females: 37-48%

6

What is the average hemoglobin concentration?

Males: 13-18 g/100mL
Females: 12-16 g/100mL

7

What is the average erythrocyte count?

Males: 5.1-5.8 million
Females: 4.2-5.4 million

8

Why are the numbers of blood typically lower in females?

They are typically lower due to the menstrual cycle and lack of androgens that stimulate RBC production. Also, hematocrit is inversely proportional to body fat %

9

What is Hematopoiesis?

It is blood cell production. Starts as hemocytoblasts.

10

How does differentiation occur?

Differentiation occurs via specific receptors.

11

What are hemocytoblasts?

They are stem cells of blood and multipotent.

12

What is the process of Erythropoiesis?

Stem cells form committed cells which form into erythrocytes.

13

What is erythropoietin?

released by the kidney and liver to stimulate red bone marrow to produce red blood cells.

14

How is erythropoiesis regulated?

Erythropoiesis is regulated by negative feedback.

15

Identify erythrocyte death.

Broken down by macrophages (mainly in the spleen)
Heme is broken into Bilirubin which is released in feces after being broken down by the liver and iron which is released as needed for erythropoiesis in liver.
Globin is turned back into amino acids.

16

What is Polycythemia?

Polycythemia is and excessive amount of RBCS. 8-11 million/mm^3
Causes: smoke, air pollution, emphysema, high elevation, and strenuous physical conditioning.
Effects: increased viscosity, increased blood pressure, increased blood volume, and makes a heart work too hard.

17

What is anemia?

Anemia is a deficiency of RBCs or Hemoglobin (Hb).
Causes: 1) insufficient number of RBCs. hemorrhagic anemia- blood loss. hemolytic anemia- RBC destruction. aplastic anemia- red bone marrow failure. 2) low Hb content. iron deficiency anemia- inadequate iron intake. pernicious anemia- autoimmune. deficiency of vitamin B12.
Effects: tiredness, pale, cold, shortness of breath.

18

What is sickle cell anemia?

having abnormal hemoglobin.

19

What are the different types of leukocytes?

Granulars: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
Agranulars: monocytes and lymphocytes

20

What is the primary function of neutrophils and their relative percentage in normal blood?

Neutrophils are the first responders and function in phagocytosis. They are about 50-70% of WBCs.

21

What is the primary function of eosinophils and their relative percentage in normal blood?

Eosinophils main function is for allergies and they destroy worms. They are about 2-4% of WBCs.

22

What is the primary function of basophils and their relative percentage in normal blood?

Basophils main function is an anticoagulant and vasodilator. They are

23

What is the primary function of monocytes and their relative percentage in normal blood?

Monocytes turn into macrophages and increase in numbers with chronic infections. They are about 3-8% of WBCs.

24

What is the primary function of lymphocytes and their relative percentage in normal blood?

Lymphocytes are involved in specific immune system responses and they hang in the lymph tissue. They are about 20-30% of WBCs.

25

What is diapedesis?

independent movement through capillary walls

26

What is leukopenia?

Leukopenia is a below normal WBC count.

27

What is leukocytosis?

Leukocytosis is when the WBC count is higher than normal.

28

What is Leukemia?

Leukemia is when you have abnormal WBCs and your count is higher than normal WBCs.

29

What is Leukopoiesis?

Is the production of new leukocytes which occurs in the bone marrow.

30

What are the three committed cells and their eventual fate?

1) myleoblast --> eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil
2) monoblast --> monocytes, macrophages
3) lymphocyte precursor --> lymphocytes

31

Describe platelets.

cell fragments that contain clotting factors.

32

What is the normal platelet count?

250,000 parts/mm^3

33

What are the functions of platelets?

clotting. makes and secretes clotting factors, vasoconstrictors, and enzymes for dissolving blood clot when not needed. phagocytosis. chemicals that attract WBCs.

34

What is thrombopoiesis?

This is platelet production in the bone marrow, which is derived from thrombopoietin which is produced in the liver and kidneys.

35

What are the committed cells for thrombopoiesis?

Megakaryoblasts are the committed cells of thrombopoiesis which break up to form platelets.

36

What are the three phases of hemostasis?

1) vascular spasm
2) platelet plug formation
3) coagulation

37

What occurs during vascular spasm?

During this phase, smooth muscle contracts, causing vasoconstriction.

38

What occurs during platelet plug formation?

During this phase, platelets adhere to the collagen fibers exposed during injury. Platelets release chemicals to make sticky, where plug is formed.

39

What occurs during coagulation?

During this phase, fibrin forms mesh that traps RBCs and platelets, forming clots.

40

What are characteristics of intrinsic mechanisms?

Takes about 3-6 minutes. Occurs in plasma or platelets.

41

What are characteristics of extrinsic mechanisms?

Takes about 15 seconds. Occurs in a damaged blood vessel.

42

What is the process of fibrinolysis?

Breaking up of a clot by converting plasminogen (inactive enzyme) to plasmin (active enzyme) to digest firbrin threads. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) makes the inactive enzyme into the active enzyme.

43

What are some common anticoagulants and why they are sometimes prescribed?

1) Warfarin/Coumadin/Heparin: competes with vitamin K and clotting factors are not made.
2) Asprin: suppresses formation of thromboxane A2-makes platelets sticky.
3) TPA: activates plasminogen--> plasmin, breaks down a clot.

44

What is hemophilia and how is it treated?

This condition is a genetic inherited clotting disorder. It is a deficiency of one or more clotting factors causing trouble with clotting. Treatment would be an injection of the specific missing clotting factors.

45

What are the common blood type groups?

A, B, AB, O

46

What happens if someone is given the wrong blood type?

If someone is given the wrong blood type, clumping (agglutination) antibodies attack foreign antigen RBCs. Clumping causes blockages of small blood vessels causing organ damage, organ failure, and possibly death. Foreign RBCs also release their hemoglobin affecting the kidneys.

47

Which blood type is the universal donor?

O

48

Which blood type is the universal recipient?

AB

49

What is Rh factor?

an antigen occurring in red blood cells.

50

Explain hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)

an RH- mother and an RH+ father have a baby that is RH+. during first pregnancy, there is no issues but a little bit of RH+ blood enters mother therefore her body creates an antibody for RH. During second pregnancy, mom's blood with antibodies passes to fetus and attacks RH+ fetus' blood. Baby is then born with hemolytic disease of the newborn which destroys babies red blood cells causing them to relsease Hb which bilirubin is toxic to the CNS

51

How is hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented?

This is prevented by a shot of Rh antibody given to the mother while still pregnant. Called RhoGam or Gamulin