Flashcards in Respiratory System Chp. 22 (Test 4) Deck (47):
What is Boyle's Law?
pressure and volume are inversely proportional to one another.
How does this law explain why air enters and leaves the lung?
as the pressure inside your chest cavity decreases your lung's volume increases, and when the pressure inside your chest cavity increases your lung's volume decreases.
What is the sequence of events of normal quiet inhalation?
1. diaphragm contracts - flattens out
2. enlargement of the thoracic cavity
3. lung volume increases, lung pressure decreases
4. atmospheric pressure > lung pressure
5. air rushes in
What muscles are involved in quiet inhalation?
diaphragm, external intercostals
What is the sequence of events of normal quiet exhalation?
1. all muscles relax and elastic recoil in lungs
2. lung volume decreases, lung pressure increases
3. air flows out
What are the muscles involved in forced inhalation?
diaphragm, scalenes, pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid, erector spinae
What are the muscles involved in forced exhalation?
internal intercostals, internal obliques, external obliques, rectus abdominus, and transverse abdominus.
What is tidal volume?
normal quiet breathing moving 500 mL of air.
the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions.
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
the volume of air in excess that can be taken in.
the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration.
male- 3100 mL
female- 1900 mL
What is expiratory reserve volume?
the volume of air you can exhale in excess.
the amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration.
male- 1200 mL
female- 700 mL
What is residual volume?
the amount of air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration.
male- 1200 mL
female- 1100 mL
What is inspiratory capacity?
the maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal volume expiration.
tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume = inspiratory capacity
male- 3600 mL
female- 2400 mL
What is functional residual capacity?
the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration.
expiratory reserve volume + residual volume = functional residual capacity
male- 2400 mL
female- 1800 mL
What is vital capacity?
the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort.
inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume = vital capacity
male- 4800 mL
female- 3100 mL
What is total lung capacity?
the maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort.
tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume = total lung capacity
male- 6000 mL
female- 4200 mL
What is forced vital capacity?
the amount of gas exhaled after max inhale but as fast as you can.
"healthy" lungs releases 80% of FVC in 1 second.
What is dead air?
about 150 mL of each breath that fills the conducting division and never gets to the alveoli.
What is the anatomical dead space?
the conducting division.
What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure?
the total pressure of gas mixture equals the sum of the pressures of gases individually.
total pressure = P1 + P2 + P3....
describe alveolar gas exchange for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
partial pressure gradients of O2 and CO2 drive the diffusion of these gases across the respiratory membrane. O2 enters lungs and diffuses rapidly from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries. CO2 diffuses in the opposite direction along a much gentler pressure gradient. expiration then gradually expels CO2 from the alveoli.
What is oxyhemoglobin?
iron from hemoglobin binds with Oxygen. in oxygenated blood.
What is deoxyhemoglobin?
hemoglobin that has released oxygen.
How is oxygen transported in the blood?
oxygen is transported by either dissolved in the plasma or bound to hemoglobin.
explain oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
the more you work, the more oxygen that is used therefore the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is lower. the less you work, the less oxygen that is used therefore the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is lower. the oxygen binding strength changes with saturation therefore it is an s-shaped curve, not a straight line.
What are the influencing factors on hemoglobin saturation and how does it influence it?
1. temperature: when temperature increases, it unloads more oxygen to the tissues, therefore it shifts the curve to the right.
2. Bohr effect: active tissues generate waste, which makes more CO2. the more CO2, the lower the pH. a drop in pH shifts the curve to the right.
What are the ways CO2 is transported?
1. dissolved in plasma (7-10% of CO2)
2. chemically bound to hemoglobin ( just over 20% of CO2) HbCO2 - carbaminohemoglobin. CO2 binds to polypeptide chains of hemoglobin not the iron atoms.
3. as bicarbonate ions in plasma. (about 70% of CO2)
HCO3 - bicarbonate ion
How does carbonic anhydrase effect CO2 transportation?
carbonic anhydrase increases the rate of the reaction. it is used between CO2 + H2O and H2CO3 in the reaction:
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-
What is chloride shift?
it is adding or taking out of a chloride ion simply to balance out the charges in a red blood cell.
How is the neural control involved in breathing?
medulla oblongata- the primary generator of respiratory rhythm
pons- smooths the transition between inhale and exhale
What role does the cerebral cortex play in voluntary control of breathing?
with the cerebral cortex you can hold your breath or change the rate of breathing
What directs the depth of breathing?
determined by how active respiratory center (in medulla oblongata) stimulates motorneurons that go to the inspiratory muscles.
What directs the rate of breathing?
directed by the I neurons and E neurons in the medulla oblongata.
Where are central chemoreceptors and what do they sense?
central chemoreceptors are located in the medulla oblongata. they sense changes in partial pressure of CO2 in the cerebral spinal fluid and pH of cerebral spinal fluid.
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors and what do they sense?
they are located in blood vessels, especially the aortic arch and common carotid artery. they check partial pressure of C02 and pH of blood.
How does the information found with chemoreceptors affect the respiratory rhythm?
too much CO2 increases respiratory rhythm.
What is the most potent stimulus for breathing?
What is acidosis?
when pH falls below 7.35. causes an elevated partial pressure of CO2 called hypercapnia. the appropriate corrective action for this is hyperventilation.
What is alkalosis?
when pH is above 7.45. causes a decrease in partial pressure of CO2 called hypocapnia. the appropriate corrective action for this is hypoventilation, slow breathing rate.
inadequate O2 delivery or inability to use O2
What are the different types of hypoxia?
hypoxemic hypoxia, ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia,
What is hypoxemic hypoxia and an example?
state of slow arterial O2.
ex: pulmonary diseases, COPD
What is ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia?
inadequate circulation. heart is unable to pump correctly.
ex: congestive heart failure.
What is anemic hypoxia?
inadequate carrying of O2 in blood.
ex: hemorrhage and carbon monoxide poisoning.
What is histotoxic hypoxia?
when the body is unable to use O2.
ex: metabolic poisoning, cyanide poisoning.
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
long term obstruction of airflow, reduction of ventilation, and difficulty forcing air out of lungs.
types: chronic bronchitis and emphysema
symptoms: dyspnea, hypoventilation, coughing, frequent pulmonary infections.
What are the types of lung cancer?
1. adenocarcinoma- in the mucus cells
2. squamous cell carcinoma- in the bronchial epithelium
3. small cell carcinoma- most deadly, in the larger part of the bronchial tree