Respiratory System Chp. 22 (Test 3) Flashcards Preview

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What are the functions of the respiratory system?

supply body with oxygen, dispose of carbon dioxide, produces sound, olfaction, control body pH, creates pressure gradient between thorax and abdomen, involved in making angiotensin II, assists in expulsion of abdominal contents, and childbirth.


List the anatomy of the respiratory system.

Figure 22.1 Pg. 802
nasal cavity, nostril, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, carina (bifurcation) of trachea, primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, right lung, left lung, diaphragm.


What is the conducting division?

passages of airflow. nostrils through bronchioles.


What is the respiratory division?

site of gas exchange.


What is the upper respiratory system?

nose, pharynx, larynx.


What is the lower respiratory system?

trachea through lungs.


What is the basic anatomy of the nose?

Figure 22.3 Pg. 804
nostril, nasal conchae (superior, middle, inferior), nasal meatuses (superior, middle, inferior), frontal sinus,


What is the basic functions of the nose?

produces mucus. filters, warms, and moistens incoming air. resonance chamber for speech. receptors for sense of smell.


What are the three divisions of the pharynx and what they include?

1. nasopharynx: pharyngeal tonsil, opening of the pharyngotympanic tube, and uvula.
2. oropharynx: palatine tonsil and isthmus of the fauces.
3. laryngopharynx: space right before the larynx.


What is the basic anatomy of the larynx?

Figure 22.3 Pg. 804
Figure 22.4 Pg. 807
Figure 22.5 Pg. 808
epiglottis, vestibular fold, thyroid cartilage, vocal fold, and cricoid cartilage.


What is the specific function of the larynx?

air passageway. prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract. voice production.


What is the location of the thyroid cartilage?

in neck, just below epiglottis, in front of the vocal cords.


What is the location of the epiglottis?

in the laryngopharynx area, just about the trachea. flaps downward to cover opening of trachea.


Identify the vocal folds.

Vestibular fold (false vocal cord) and vocal fold (true vocal cord)


How do you distinguish between the vocal folds and vestibular folds?

the vestibular fold is the top vocal cord and the vocal fold is the lower vocal cord.


How do you change pitch when making a sound?

it's changed by the tightness of folds.


How do you change loudness when making a sound?

it's changed by the amount of air passing over the folds.


Describe the anatomy of the trachea.

Figure 22.6 Pg. 810
Trachealis muscle, mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, and adventitia.


What is the trachealis?

The trachealis is smooth muscle that covers the open side of the trachea. is for the expansion of the esophagus when swallowing food.


What is the pathway of the bronchial tree?

primary bronchi --> secondary bronchi --> tertiary bronchi --> bronchioles.


What is different about bronchioles?

they are less than 1mm in diameter. they contain rings of smooth muscle.


Describe the anatomy of the lungs?

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, and alveoli.


What are the alveoli?

functional units of lungs.


What are squamous alveolar cells?

cells that compose the wall of the alveoli.


What are great alveolar cells?

lipoprotein produce surfactant. surfactant decreases surface tension which keeps the alveoli form collapsing.


What are alveolar macrophages?

attack pathogens that enter via alveoli.


What is the arrangement of the pleurae?

parietal pleura- outer layer
pleural fluid
visceral pleura- inner layer


What is the functions of the pleura?

1. prevents friction
2. pressure gradient: pleural cavity pressure is less than pressure in the lungs.
3. provides separation of the two lungs