BLOOD COMPONENTS FUNCTION Flashcards Preview

APES1001 Block 2 > BLOOD COMPONENTS FUNCTION > Flashcards

Flashcards in BLOOD COMPONENTS FUNCTION Deck (13)
Loading flashcards...
1

Blood Composition and Function

•Blood in vertebrates is a connective tissue
consisting of several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma
•The cellular elements occupy about 45%of the volume of blood
•The plasmatic elements occupy about 55%of the volume of blood

2

Plasma

•Plasma contains inorganic salts as dissolvedions, sometimes called electrolytes•Plasma proteins influence blood pH and help maintain osmotic balance •Particular plasma proteins function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood clotting

3

Cellular Elements

•Suspended in blood plasma:
•Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport O2
•Platelets-cells that are involved in clotting
•White blood cells (leukocytes) function in defense

4

Erythrocytes mainly transport oxygen molecules

each molecule of hemoglobin binds up to four molecules of O2

5

Leukocytes

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
4. Lymphocytes
5. Monocytes

6

Neutrophils

•~50% of WBC’s, first to respond against bacterial / viral invasion
•Alert other cells in immune system to respond as well

7

Eosinophils

•Responding to parasite (e.g. worms) infections
•Role in allergy symptoms (overreaction to mistaken invader e.g. pollen)
•~1% in bloodstream, but highly concentrated in digestive tract

8

Basophils

•~1% of WBC’s, mount non-specific immune response to pathogens

9

Lymphocytes

•T-cells kills foreign invaders directly
•B-cells humoral immunity, produce antibodies that “remember” an infection

10

Monocytes

•~5% of WBC’s, important for migrating into tissues and clean up dead cells

11

Adaptive immune response

•Cell-mediated immune response
•Specialised T cells destroy infected host cells

12

Humoral immune response

•Occurs in blood and lymph
•Antibodies help neutralise or eliminates toxins and pathogens

13

Role of WBC’s in the interaction with the HIV

•Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
•Escapes and attacks the adaptive immune response
•Infects helper T cells by binding specifically to the CD4 accessory protein
•Altered proteins on the surface of some mutated viruses reduce interaction with antibodies and cytotoxic T cells.