blood groups/lymphatic system Flashcards Preview

Human bio > blood groups/lymphatic system > Flashcards

Flashcards in blood groups/lymphatic system Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...

what are antigens

Proteins on the surface of RBCs

Identify what type of cell it is

Specific shape


what are antibodies

specialised proteins

Complimentary to non-self antigens

Combine to form antigen-antibody complex --> destroys antigen


which blood groups are referred to as universal donors and universal recipients

universal donor: O

universal recipient: AB


for blood group A, explain the antigens/antibodies presents and which groups it can donate to

antigen: A

antibody: B

donates to: A, AB


for blood group B, explain the antigens/antibodies presents and which groups it can donate to

antigen: B

antibody: A

donates to: B, AB


for blood group AB, explain the antigens/antibodies presents and which groups it can donate to

antigen: A and B

antibody: none

donates to: AB


for blood group O, explain the antigens/antibodies presents and which groups it can donate to

antigen: none

antibody: A and B

donates to: A, B, AB, O


explain what transfusions are

Transfer blood or blood components from one person to another

Must match ABO blood group otherwise erythrocytes causes agglutination and foreign cells will clump together and disintegrate

Rh blood groups must also be matched to prevent production of anti-Rh antibodies

Mismatch causes similar slumping to ABO incompatibility


list the different types of transfusions

whole blood

red cell concentrates

platelet concentrates



autologous tranfusions


explain what a whole blood transfusion is

Blood taken from the donor but with a chemical added to prevent clotting

Used in cases of sever blood loss


explain what a red cell concentrate transfusion is

The most widely produced component of blood

Produced by spinning blood in a centrifuge to separate components

Platelets and white blood cells may or may not be removed by the centrifuge

Used for patients suffering from heart disease of sever anaemia


explain what a platelet concentrate transfusion is

Given to patients who have a reduced number of abnormal platelets


explain what a cryoprecipitate concentrate transfusion is

Obtained by freezing plasma and letting it thaw slowly, leaving the cryoprecipitate as a solid

Contains many of the substances necessary for blood clotting

Used for severe bleeding or to treat some forms of haemophilia


explain what an immunoglobin transfusion is

Groups of proteins acting as antibodies and extracted from blood

Used to treat patients who are deficient in antibodies

Particular immunoglobins can treat people with no immunity to particular diseases


explain what a autologous transfusion is

A patients own blood is used, collected from the patient prior to an operation that may require a blood transfusion

Often used in elective surgery

Autologous transfusion eliminate risk of disease transmissions and possible side effects of usual transfusions


what is the lymphatic system

Part of the body’s internal defence against disease-causing organisms

Main function is to collect fluid that escapes walls of blood capillaries and return it to the circulatory system
- Fluids leak out the arterial at the end of capillaries due
to high pressure
- Some fluid is returned to the capillary in the venous
end, but the excess is returned to blood via the
lymphatic system
- The fluid returned is called a lymph
- Clear pale yellow colour


Explain the structure of the lymphatic system

A network of lymph capillaries joined to a larger lymph vessel

Lymph nodes, located along the length of some lymph vessels


Describe lymph vessels

Lymph doesn’t circulate – one way system

Lymph capillaries are slightly larger and more permeable than regular capillaries

Lymph vessels originate as blind-ended tubes in spaces between cells of tissues

Have valves and relatively low pressure

Network of lymph vessels join to form 2 lymphatic ducts that empty into large veins in the upper chest

Lymph is moved through lymphatic vessels as a result of smooth and skeletal muscle and valves
- Smooth and skeletal muscle contracts wand push
lymph along
- Large lymph vessels have valves that close when the
pressure drops, preventing backflow of lymph


Describe structure of lymph nodes

Also called lymph glands

Occur at intervals along lymphatic vessels

Most numerous in the neck, alimentary canal, armpits and groin

Bean shape, range from 1 – 25 mm in length

Each is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue framework that extends into the node

Within the framework are masses of lymphoid tissue containing cells (lymphocytes/macrophages/plasma cells.)

Spaces between cells are criss-crossed by a network of fibres


Explain the process of lymph travelling lymph nodes

Lymph enters through the convex side of the node, filters through the spaces and passes out of vessels on the opposite side

Lymph passes through several nodes before entering blood


explain the role of the lymphatic system in defence against disease

Lymph entering lymph nodes contains cell debris, foreign particles and micro-organisms which may be able to cause disease and must be destroyed

Larger particles are trapped in the meshwork of fibre as lymph flows through spaces in the nodes

Large phagocytic cells called macrophages destroy these particles by phagocytosis and enzymes

Most bacteria ingested in this way is destroyed within 10 – 30 minutes

When infections occur, the formation of lymphocytes increases, causing lymph nodes to become swollen and sore


describe the other components of the lymphatic system

Spleen: acts as a large lymph node

Bone marrow: where lymphocytes are formed

Tonsils: catch harmful bacteria and produce lymphocytes to destroy them

Thymus: where lymphocytes develop and mature