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Flashcards in musculoskeletal system Deck (42)
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1

list the function of the skeletal system

support

storage - minerals, fats, salts

attachment - for bones to muscles

articulation - when 2 bones move around each other

protection

production - of RBCs

2

explain what the epiphyses is in the structure of a long bone

ends of the bone

3

explain what the diaphyses is in the structure of a long bone

the main shaft, hollow cylinder of compact bone surrounding a cavity

4

explain what compact bone is in the structure of a long bone

forms the cortex/hard outer shell of most bones

very dense and rigid

filled with tiny holes that hold blood vessels

protects spongey bone and bone marrow

5

explain what spongey bone is in the structure of a long bone

bone on the inside

porous and has large spaces filled with marrow

Red bone marrow in flat and long bones, produces RBCs, WBCs and platelets

6

explain what the medullary cavity is in the structure of a long bone

hollow cavity in the diaphyses, filled with yellow bone marrow for fat storage

7

explain what articular cartilage is in the structure of a long bone

Covers epiphysis for protection and cushioning

8

explain what epiphyseal lines are in the structure of a long bone

Bone growth areas

9

what is an osteoblast

Secrete bone matrix around themselves until nutrients struggles to reach osteoblast when matrix becomes dense and can’t diffuse

When oxygen is low enough, combines with chemical signals, the osteoblasts differentiate into an osteocyte

10

what is an osteocyte

Bone cell

Maintains bone tissue

11

what is an osteon

Basic unit of bone cells (whole individual circle in diagrams)

12

what is the Haversian canal

Centre of osteon, blood vessel run up it to deliver nutrients to osteocyte

13

what are the lamellae

Concentric layers surrounding central canal

Forms 3 layers

14

what are the lacunae

Spaces in lamellae where osteocytes live

15

what are the canaliculi

Small crevices moving nutrients between osteocytes from the central canal

Run across from lamellae

Deliver nutrients from lacunae to lacunae

16

what is the process of bone formation/growth called

ossification

17

what are the 2 types of ossification processes

endochondral ossification- long bones

intramembranous ossification - flat bones

18

explain the process of endochondral ossification

Chondrocytes secrete cartilage matrix

Chondrocytes within the cartilage absorb the surrounding cartilage matrix

The matrix calcifies and the chondrocytes die

Stem cells in the pericardium divide to form osteoblasts

The periosteal bud (consisting of capillaries) form the primary ossification centre

Bone development from the osteoblasts extends toward epiphyses

Same process is repeated in epiphyses  second ossification centres formed

Calcified cartilage is replaced with spongey bone

Osteoclasts reabsorb bone in the diaphysis creating a hollow medullary cavity

Remaining cartilage is over epiphyses forming articular cartilage.

19

explain the process of intramembranous ossification

Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts

Osteoblasts lay down osteoid – organic part of bone made of collagen fibres

Some osteoblasts become entrapped in the osteoid and becomes an osteocyte

The osteoid calcifies and forms a type of spongey bone called spicules

These aggregate in small connecting beams called trabeculae

As trabeculae thicken they form compact bone

The blood vessels on the outside of the cells condense to form the periosteum

20

what is a joint

A site where 2 bones come together

21

what are the 3 types of joints

fixed

cartilaginous

synovial

22

explain what a fixed joint is

no movement, held by fibrous connective tissue e.g. sutures in skull

23

explain what a cartilaginous joint is

slight movement, held in place by cartilage e.g. symphysis pubis, between vertebrae

24

explain what a synovial joint is

amount of movement only limited by ligaments, tendons and adjoining bones e.g. shoulder, wrist, knee,

25

list the different types of synovial joints

ball and socket

gliding

saddle

hinge

pivot

condyloid

26

explain what a ball and socket joint is

Form when the spherical head of one bone fits into a cup-like cavity of another

E.g. head of humorous into scapula, head of femur fit with pelvis

27

explain what a hinge joint is

Allow movement in one plane only

Form when the convex surface of 1 bone fits into the concave surface of another

E.g. elbow, knee, ankle

28

explain what a pivot joint is

Formed when the rounded, pointed or conical end of 1 bone articulates with a ring, formed partly by a bone and partly by a ligament

E.g. joint between the first vertebrae and skull, between radius and ulna

29

explain what a gliding joint is

Allow movement in any direction in a side-to-side or back-and-forth motion

Restricted only by ligaments of bony processes

E.g. between carpals, between tarsals, between sternum and clavicle

30

explain what a saddle joint is

2 bones forming the joint are both saddle shaped

They fit together in a way that allowed side-to-side movement and back and forth movement

E.g. where the thumb joins the palm of the hand