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1

was is the structure and function of the cytoplasm

jelly like material

fills space between nucleus and membrane

75 - 90% water

cell organelles suspended in it

regulate osmotic pressure

2

was is the structure and function of the nucleus

largest organelle

oval of sphere shaped

nuclear membrane: double membrane, separates nucleus from cytoplasm

nuclear pore: gaps in the nuclear membrane, lets large molecules enter and leave the nucleus

nucleolus: inside nucleus, contains genetic material in DNA, plays a part in manufacturing proteins

3

was is the structure and function of the ribosomes

very small spherical organelles

site of protein synthesis

either attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in cytoplasm

4

was is the structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum

pairs of parallel membranes extending from cell membrane to nucleus

channels are for storing or transporting molecules e.g. protein

provides surface for chemical reactions to take place

rough: ribosomes attached

smooth: no ribosomes

5

was is the structure and function of the Golgi body

flattened stacks

modifies and packages proteins

vesicles: small sacks of liquid containing proteins formed at the edges of the golgi body membrane

6

was is the structure and function of the lysosomes

small sphere containing digestive enzymes

can join with vesicles and break down material inside vesicles

remove/break down cell waste

7

what is the structure and function of the mitochondria

double membrane (outer and inner folded)

sausage shaped

some chemical reactions of cell respiration occur

provides energy available for cellular activities

8

breifly describe the cell centrioles

only appear during cell division

look like celery sticks in diagram

9

was is the structure and function of the cell membrane

controls/regulates movement of particles in & out of cell

regulates equilibrium in cell

phospholipid bilayer

phosphate head: hydrophilic (water loving), head faces cytoplasm and outside of cell (both mostly water)

glycerol neck connects to:

2 x fatty chain tails: hydrophobic (water hating), faces inward & not in direct contact with water

embedded between the phospholipids are proteins

10

list the different types of proteins embedded in the cell membrane

identity protein

receptor protein

carrier protein

channel protein

11

list some factors that movement across the cell membrane depends on

1. concentration gradient: movement of particles from higher concentration will move to areas of lower concentration until it is evenly distributed

high - low = no energy
low - high = energy

2. osmosis: diffusion of water

PASSIVE (with gradient and no energy) vs ACTIVE transport (against gradient and requires energy)

12

what are the different types of transport across the cell membrane

passive: no energy required

active: requires energy

13

explain simple diffusion

spreading out of particles from areas of high - low concentration until they're evenly distributed down a concentration gradient

only occurs in gases and liquids

passive, no energy required

occurs across cell membrane

only lipid soluble substances

14

explain osmosis

movement/diffusion of water particles from areas of high to low concentration down a concentration gradient

through AQUAPORINS

water molecules can pass through both phospholipid bilayer and channel proteins.

15

explain the difference between facilitated diffusion and simple diffusion

facilitated: passive, with concentration gradient H-L, water soluble, requires assistance

e.g. glucose molecules

simple: passive, with concentration gradient H-L, lipid soluble, straight through membrane

e.g. O2, CO2

16

what are the 2 different types of passive transport

diffusion and osmosis

17

describe what active transport is

requires energy (ATP: adenosine triphosphate)

against concentration gradient L-H

example of active transport: vesicular transport
e.g. transporting ions

18

explain what vesicular transport is

movement of substances across the membrane in membranous sacks called vesicles

active process: energy is needed to form the vesicles

either
endocytosis: taking substances into the cell by vesicular transport. membrane forms around particle until completely enclosed. Vesicle pinches off and is suspended in the cytoplasm. In pinocytosis (liquids) or phagocytosis (solids)

exocytosis: contents of a vesicle inside the cell are passed to the outside. a vesicle migrates to the membrane and fuses with the membrane. contents of the vesicle are the pushed outside of the cell.

19

what are the 4 main types of tissue

muscular

epithelium

connective

nervous

20

describe the structure of epithelium tissue

cells are arranged in sheets

joined by small amount of intercellular matrix

rest on basement membrane

either:
simple epithelium: 1 layer

connective epithelium: several layers

21

describe the different types of simple epithelium tissue

squamous

cuboidal

columnar

ciliated

22

describe compound epithelium tissue

several layers of cells

cells become flatter and more scale like closer to the surface

cells lose their living contents in the skin

found in lining of mouth, pharynx and oesophagus

23

what is the function of epithelium tissue

lines internal organs and cavities

protects underlying cells from injury, harmful chemicals, bacteria or drying

absorption

secretes waste

sensation

24

describe connective tissue

binds parts of the body together

provides support

found in: rib cage, ears, and joints between bones

25

name the different types of connective tissue

areolar

adipose

cartilage

bone

26

describe cuboidal epithelium tissue

cells are nearly cube shaped

found in the kidney

27

describe columnar epithelium tissue

cells are column shaped

long axis at right angle to basement membrane

found in lining of stomach and intestines

28

describe squamous epithelium tissue

flattened and scale like

arranged edge to edge

found in lining of the mouth

29

describe ciliated epithelium tissue

short, actively waving threads called cilia are attached to cell edges

found in wall of trachea

30

describe areolar connective tissue

white and yellow fibres mixed together as well as other non fibrous ground substances

keeps internal organs in place and binds skin to deeper structures

found in:
under skin, binding it to muscle & surrounding various organs