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Flashcards in Blood Supply Deck (20)
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What supplies most of cerebrum?
What are its branches?
What does it bifurcate into?

internal carotid arteries

branches: opthalmic artery, anterior choroidal artery, posterior communicating artery

bifurcates into the anterior and middle cerebral artery


What supplies the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord?
What are the branches?


Vertebral branches - posterior and anterior spinal artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)


What do vertebral arteries fuse to form?
What are the basilar branches?
What does do the vertebral arteries bifurcate into?

fuse to form basilar artery

basilar branches- anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), superior cerebellar artery

bifurcates into posterior cerebral arteries


What is the Circle of Willis?

interconnects the anterior and posterior circulations

also intracranial-extracranial anastamoses (external-internal carotid artery, carotid-basilar, carotid-vertebral)


What supplies deep cerebral structures?

small perforating arteries

arteries around base of brain - give rise o small perforating (or ganglionic) arteries

MCA branches


What are the MCA branches?

supplies the deep structures of diencephalon, hypothalamus, and telencephalon


Describe the drainage of cerebral veins.

Cerebral veins drain
dural venous sinuses
internal jugular veins and basilar venous plexus (base of the brain, communicates with epidural venous plexus of spinal cord)


Describe the two major divisions of the cerebral venous system.

superficial veins :
superior group - empty into superior and inferior sagittal sinuses
inferior group - empty with transverse and cavernous sinus

deep veins


Describe the cerebral venous system in regards to the cerebellar and brainstem.

Collection of veins that drain into the deep (Great vein of Galen), straight, transverse and petrosal sinus


Describe the control of blood flow to the CNS.

2 percent of body weight
15 percent cardiac output
25 percent oxygen consumption


Describe the flow rate of blood to CNS.

normally 55mL of blood/100g CNS/minute

20 ml- neurons stop generating electrical signals
10ml- necrosis of brain


Describe autoregulation (control of blood flow to CNS).

arterial and smooth muscle cell mediated


Describe metabolic (control of blood flow to CNS)

increased neuronal activity - glutamate released - astrocyte end feet receptors activated - vasodilator factors released at end-feet applied to vessels


What is the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) "neurovascular unit"

restricts ionic/fluid movements, supplies essential nutrients, mediates efflux of waste or toxic products


What brain barriers are there?

Blood-CSF barrier
arachnoid barrier
blood-spinal cord barrier
blood nerve barrier
blood retinal barrier
blood labyrinth barrier


Describe the blood-brain barrier composition.

capillary endothelial cells
pericytes, astrocytes and neuronal processes


What are the entry points for perforating arteries? Where are they?

anterior and posterior perforated substance - visible entry points of perforating arteries on base of the brain


Describe cerebral veins.

valveless with numerous anastamoses


What do emissary veins do?

they connect extracranial veins with dural sinuses.


Describe neuronal control of blood flow to CNS.

cerebral vessels innervated by autonomic fibers