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SHB Neuroanatomy > Brain Intro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Intro Deck (39):
1

Describe the following cellular elements:
cell body
axon terminal
axon
myelin
dendrites

cell body- synthesizes and packages macromolecules
axon terminal- synaptic transmission to other neurons
axon- conducts action potentials toward other neurons
myelin- glial covering that speeds conduction
dendrites- site of most (but not all) synaptic inputs

2

Describe saltatory conduction.

charge skips from node to node- accelerating the conduction of the impulse

3

What are the components of the neuron?

cell membrane, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleolus, organelles

4

What are the principal PNS glial cells?

Schwann cells
PNS axons can be myelinated or unmyelinated

5

What are the CNS glial cells?

oligodendrocytes - some CNS axons are myelinated by oligodendrocytes but others are unmyelinated

astrocytes- provide structural and metabolic support to neurons

ependymal cells- line the ventricles

microglia- respond to CNS injury

6

What is CNS?

brain and spinal cord

7

What are the main components of the brain?

cerebrum, cerebellum, basal ganglia, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla

8

Where does the long axis of the CNS bend?

cephalic flexure
dorsal ventral relationships change at the cephalic flexure between brainstem and diencephalon

9

Describe the following cerebral hemispheres:
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
limbic lobe

frontal lobe- motor areas
parietal lobe- somatosensory areas
temporal lobe- auditory areas
occipital lobe- visual areas
limbic lobe- interconnected with other limbic structures buried in the temporal lobe

10

Describe the three sulci.

What marks the boundary between sensory and motor cortex?
What is localized near the lateral fissure?

central sulcus (between frontal and parital)
lateral sulcus )between frontal and temporal/ temporal and parietal
parietooccipital sulcus- between parietal and occipital

central sulcus marks boundary between sensory and motor cortex.
speech and audition are localized near the lateral fissure.

11

Which areas are important for speech?
Which area is important for auditory functions?
Complex visual functions?
What is the primary receiving area for visual impulses?

Broca's motor speech area and Wernicke's area (reception of speech)

superior temporal gyrus (important for auditory functions)

inferior and middle temporal gyri (complex visual functions)

occipital lobe (primary area for receiving visual impulses)

12

Where is the insula?

hidden deep in the lateral or Sylvian Fissure by parts of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes

13

What does the diencephalon include?

thalamus and hypothalamus

thalamus-conveys information to the cerebral cortex (almost all motor and sensory pathways are relayed through the thalamus)

hypothalamus- controls autonomic nervous system

14

What does the cerebral hemisphere include?
brainstem?
cerebellum?

cerebral hemisphere- cerebral cortex and corpus callosum

brainstem- midbrain, pons, medulla

cerebellum- vermis and hemisphere

15

What makes CSF?
Where is vision processed most intensely?

CSF- made in choroid
vision is processed most intensely near the calcarine fissure

16

What are major components of the basal ganglia?
Which are major limbic structures?

basal ganglia- caudate nucleus, putamen, ang globus pallidus
(lentiform nucleus = putamen and globus pallidus)

limbic structures- amygdala and hippocampus

17

Precentral gyrus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region-frontal lobe of cerebral cortex

General functions- voluntary movement of muscles of head and head region

Associated disorders- loss of voluntary movement of body and head region

18

Premotor region
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- frontal lobe of cerebral cortex

General functions- aids and integrates voluntary movements of body

Associated disorders- apraxia (loss of ability to carry out complex movements of body and head)

19

Frontal eye fields
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region-frontal lobe of cerebral cortex

General functions- controls voluntary horizontal movement of the eyes

Associated disorders- loss of voluntary horizontal eye movement (eyes cannot deviate to side opposite lesion)

20

Prefrontal cortex
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region-frontal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- intellectual functions, affective processes
Associated disorders-intellectual and emotional impairment

21

Broca's motor speech area
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- frontal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- regulates motor aspects of speech
Associated disorders- motor aphasia

22

Postcentral gyrus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- parietal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- conscious perception of somesthetic sensation
Associated disorders- loss of somatosensory perception

23

Wernicke's area
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- parietal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- receptive integration of speech
Associated disorders- receptive aphasia

24

Superior parietal lobule
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- parietal lobe of cerebral cortex

General functions-integration of sensory and motor functions; programming mechanism for motor responses

Associated disorders- posterior parietal syndrome; sensory neglect; apraxia

25

Superior temporal gyrus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- temporal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- auditory perception
Associated disorders- loss of auditory perception

26

Middle temporal gyrus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- temporal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- detection of moving objects
Associated disorders- loss of movement detection

27

Inferior temporal gyrus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- temporal lobe of cerebral cortex
General functions- recognition of faces
Associated disorders-loss of facial recognition

28

Upper and lower banks of calcarine sulcus
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- occipital lobe of cerebral cortex

General functions- visual perception

Associated disorders- partial or total loss of vision of the contralateral visual fields for both eyes, depending upon the extend of the lesion in the visual cortex

29

Lateral, third, and fourth ventricles and cerebral aqueduct.
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- ventricles of brain (deep brain structures)

General functions- flow of CSF throughout CNS: source of electrolytes and conduit of neuroactive and metabolic products

Associated disorders- hydrocephalus

30

Caudate nucleus, putament, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- basal ganglia of deep brain structures
General functions- regulation of motor functions associated with cerebral cortex
Associated disorders- dyskinesia

31

Thalamic nuclei
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- thalamus (diencephalon)

General functions- transmission of signals from other regions of CNS to the cerebral cortex mediating sensory, motor, cognitive, and affective (emotional) functions

Associated disorders- disruption and possible loss of sensory, motor and other functions

32

Hypothalamic nuclei
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- hypothalamus (hypothalamic nuclei)

General functions- visceral (feeding, drinking, autonomic, and endocrine functions and sexual and emotional behavior)

Associated disorders- disruption, loss, or alterations in visceral and affective functions and processes

33

Hippocampal formation, amygdala, septal area, cingulate gyrus, prefrontal cortex
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- limbic structures

General functions- modulation of hypothalamic functions; regulation of emotional behavior, short-term memory

Associated disorders- temporal lobe epilepsy; loss of control of emotions and related affective processes; loss of short term memory

34

Cerebellum: anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobes
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- cerebellum and brainstem

General functions-integration of motor functions related to all regions of CNS associated with motor and related processes

Associated disorders- loss of balance; ataxia; hypotonia; loss of coordination; disorders of movement when intentionally attempting to produce a purposeful response

35

Midbrain
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- cerebellum and brainstem

General functions- transmission and regulation of sensory, motor, and autonomic functions (CN III and IV)

Associated disorders- sensory, motor, and autonomic deficits as well as deficits associated with CN III and IV

36

Pons
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- cerebellum and brainstem

General functions- transmission and regulation of sensory, motor, and autonomic functions (CN V, VI, and VII)

Associated disorders- sensory, motor, and autonomic deficits as well as deficits associated with CN V, VI, VII

37

Medulla
Brain region-
General functions-
Associated disorders-

Brain region- cerebellum and brainstem

General functions- transmission and regulation of sensory, motor, and autonomic functions (CN VIII, IX, X, XII)

Associated disorders- sensory, motor, and autonomic deficits, including respiration, as well as deficits associated with CN VIII, IX, X, XII

38

What is the spinal cord white matter made of mostly?

almost entirely axons and dendrites

39

What is the only CN to exit the brainstem from the dorsal/posterior aspect?

The trochlear nerve (CN IV) is the only cranial nerve to exit the brainstem from the dorsal/posterior aspect.