Bloodborne Pathogens Flashcards Preview

Intro to Clinical Med > Bloodborne Pathogens > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bloodborne Pathogens Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is hepatitis and what is it caused by?

*Inflammation of the liver *can be caused by viruses *toxic substances (ETOH, meds, industrial solvents)

2

When is hepatitis acute vs. chronic?

Acute if 6 motnths or less, chronic if over 6 months

3

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis?

**fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, mild fever, mild RUQ pain

** later signs include jaundice, dark urine

4

Discuss Hep A. characteristics.

*highly contagious, single stranded RNA *spread fecal-oral incubation is 14-28 days *usually mild, most people don't know they have

5

What is the clinical presentation of Hep A?

- fever -malaise -decrease appetite -abdominal discomfort

6

What are the risk factors for Hep A?

-poor sanitation -lack of clean water -injecting drugs -health care workers -sex partners -living in house with infected person -not vaccinated

7

What labs do you order for Hep A?

-CBC -LFT -CMP -Hepatitis panel--> if pt has + then: ---IgM, IgG for specific A

8

Treatment and prevention for Hep A

-support -avoid meds that are hepatotoxic (acetaminophen) -avoid ETOH -safe drinking water -proper sewage disposal -hand washing -immunize

9

Discuss Hep B characteristics

--double stranded virus -transmitted by infected blood/serum -sex

10

How is Hep B transmitted

-blood, bodily fluids -sharing needles -mom to infant RISK FACTOR BEING HEALTH CARE WORKER

11

What is the clinical presentation of Hep B?

--jaundice, fatigue/malaise, N/V

12

Treatment and prevention for hep B

-treatment aimed at controlling virus and preventing damage to liver -antivirals (benefit most people) -reg blood tests prevention = vaccine

13

Hep C characteristics

-most common cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer --single stranded RNA (2-26wks for incubation) -no vaccine

14

Transmission of Hep C.

-IV drug use -high risk sex -reuse of unsterile medical equiptment (NOT SPREAD BY BREAST MILK, KISSING, HUGGING OR BEING AROUND INFECTED PERSON)

15

Clinical presentation of Hep C

-fever -fatigue -n/v -abd pain, dark urine -80% don't show sx and those listed above are acute

16

What are tests for Hep c?

1st serological test 2nd nucleic acid test

17

Treatment and prevention for hep c?

-treatment (not all require) -cure with: interferon and ribavirin, direct antiviral agents (DAA)are better tolerated 12 weeks but expensive -prevent by condoms, safe sharp handling, testing donated blood, hand hygiene

18

HIV characteristics

retrovirus attacking CD4

19

Transmission of HIV

-sex (semen, vag secretions) -IV drug use -mothers to infants

20

Risk factors for HIV

-unprotected anal or vaginal sed -IV drug use -accidental needle sticks among health care providers

21

Presentation of HIV

-Acute: fever, HA, rash, sore throat -Later: swollen lymphnodes, weight loss, cough, carps sarcoma, meningitis, TB, lymphomas

22

Diagnosis of HIV

-enzyme immuno assay -western blot -pcr 5 cs: connection, confidential, counsel, correct results, connection

23

treatment of HIV

ART

24

Opportunistic infections seen with AIDS

-pneumonia -brain infections (toxoplasmosis) -MAC = widespread infection= fever, weight loss -yeast inf. of esophagous -histoplasmosis = fever, couch, anemia -lymphoma -kaposis sarcoma -acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

25

What do universal precautions apply to?

-blood -bodily fluids -semen -vag secretions -CSF -synovial, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, amniotic fluids

26

What do universal precautions NOT apply to ?

-feces -nasal secretions -sputum -sweat -vomitus -urine -saliva -tears

27

What are other exposure causes (other than needle sticks?)

-trauma (bone fragments, bleeding) -childbirth -improper disposal of instruments -improper universal precautions -skin contact -open wound, chapped non-intact skin -mucous membrane -donated blood -airborne