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Applied Physiology (SE) > Body Composition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Composition Deck (49)
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1

What are the 3 major structure components that make up the body?

1. Bone
2. Muscle
3. Fat

2

List 5 characteristics of the reference man.

1. Taller
2. Heavier
3. Skeleton weighs more
4. Larger muscle mass
5. Lower fat content

3

What is average total body fat for the reference male and female?

Male: 15%
Female: 27%

4

What is the minimal fat percentage needed to maintain physiologic function in males and females?

Males: 3%
Females: 12%

5

Sex specific/characteristic fat is ______x higher in females than in males.

4x higher

6

Why is it important for females to have sex specific fat? (2)

1. Needed for child bearing 2. Needed for hormone related function

7

What is storage fat? Purpose?

Consists of fat the accumulates in adipose tissue

Purpose: Nutritional reserve includes the fatty tissues that protects the internal organs from trauma and the larger subcutaneous fat volume deposited beneath the skin surface

8

What percentage of storage fat is found in females vs males?

Females: 15%
Males: 12%

9

True or False: Lean body mass does not contain fat stores.

FALSE

Contains 3% of fat stores within CNS, bone marrow and internal organs

10

What is fat free mass?

Body mass devoid of all fat

11

Physically active females with low body fat increase their chances of what 4 things?

1. Delayed onset of menstruation
2. Irregular menstrual cycles
3. Complete cessation of the menses
4. Increased risk of MS injury during vigorous exercise

12

What percentage of body fat is need to trigger the onset of menstruation? What % is needed to sustain a normal cycle?

17% body fat for onset of menstruation

22% body fat to sustain a normal cycle

13

What is leptin? Where is it made? What does it regulate?

1. Satiety Hormone

2. Made by fat cells which regulate the amount of fat stored in the body

3. Regulates sensation of hunger and energy expenditure

14

A critical blood ____ level is necessary to trigger ______ ability in females.

1. Leptin
2. Reproductive

15

Leptin serves as the mediator between the _____ and _______.

Adipose tissue
Gonads

16

What can a leptin deficiency lead to?

Delayed puberty and menarche

17

Female athletes who start training in high school or earlier show a lower lifetime of _______ occurrences.

Breast and reproductive organ cancer

18

Women who exercise _____ hours per week decrease their risk of breast CA by ____.

4 hours per week

50%

19

What is one reason why exercise may decrease risk of breast cancer?

Less production of estrogen produced over the patient's lifetime

20

Losing weight could prevent ____ in every ____ cancer deaths in the US.

1 in every 6

21

What percentage of cancer deaths in males and females is caused by excessive weight?

Males: 14%
Females: 20%

22

True or False: Obesity makes cancer hard to find and treat.

TRUE

23

List the 3 somatotypes.

1. Ectomorph: THIN
2. Mesomorph: MUSCULAR
3. Endomorph: FAT

24

BMI is derived from body _____ and _____.

Mass
Stature

25

What increases with increasing BMI?

Risk of disease

26

BMI does not take into consideration _____.

Body composition

27

What BMI values indicate good health, overweight, and obesity?

Good health = 18.5-24.9
Overweight= 25-29.9
Obese= 29.9+

28

The longer the duration of exercise the greater the______.

caloric burning effect

29

What type of training best alters body composition?

Circuit-resistance training

30

_______ exercise shrinks fat cells.

Aerobic exercise