Flashcards in Body Composition Deck (49)
What are the 3 major structure components that make up the body?
List 5 characteristics of the reference man.
3. Skeleton weighs more
4. Larger muscle mass
5. Lower fat content
What is average total body fat for the reference male and female?
What is the minimal fat percentage needed to maintain physiologic function in males and females?
Sex specific/characteristic fat is ______x higher in females than in males.
Why is it important for females to have sex specific fat? (2)
1. Needed for child bearing 2. Needed for hormone related function
What is storage fat? Purpose?
Consists of fat the accumulates in adipose tissue
Purpose: Nutritional reserve includes the fatty tissues that protects the internal organs from trauma and the larger subcutaneous fat volume deposited beneath the skin surface
What percentage of storage fat is found in females vs males?
True or False: Lean body mass does not contain fat stores.
Contains 3% of fat stores within CNS, bone marrow and internal organs
What is fat free mass?
Body mass devoid of all fat
Physically active females with low body fat increase their chances of what 4 things?
1. Delayed onset of menstruation
2. Irregular menstrual cycles
3. Complete cessation of the menses
4. Increased risk of MS injury during vigorous exercise
What percentage of body fat is need to trigger the onset of menstruation? What % is needed to sustain a normal cycle?
17% body fat for onset of menstruation
22% body fat to sustain a normal cycle
What is leptin? Where is it made? What does it regulate?
1. Satiety Hormone
2. Made by fat cells which regulate the amount of fat stored in the body
3. Regulates sensation of hunger and energy expenditure
A critical blood ____ level is necessary to trigger ______ ability in females.
Leptin serves as the mediator between the _____ and _______.
What can a leptin deficiency lead to?
Delayed puberty and menarche
Female athletes who start training in high school or earlier show a lower lifetime of _______ occurrences.
Breast and reproductive organ cancer
Women who exercise _____ hours per week decrease their risk of breast CA by ____.
4 hours per week
What is one reason why exercise may decrease risk of breast cancer?
Less production of estrogen produced over the patient's lifetime
Losing weight could prevent ____ in every ____ cancer deaths in the US.
1 in every 6
What percentage of cancer deaths in males and females is caused by excessive weight?
True or False: Obesity makes cancer hard to find and treat.
List the 3 somatotypes.
1. Ectomorph: THIN
2. Mesomorph: MUSCULAR
3. Endomorph: FAT
BMI is derived from body _____ and _____.
What increases with increasing BMI?
Risk of disease
BMI does not take into consideration _____.
What BMI values indicate good health, overweight, and obesity?
Good health = 18.5-24.9
The longer the duration of exercise the greater the______.
caloric burning effect
What type of training best alters body composition?