Flashcards in Energy Transfer (3) Deck (34)
True or false: The body can use heat for energy.
Body cannot use heat for energy and obtains energy via chemical bonds
Where is chemical energy extracted from? (3) What is it primarily used for?
1. CHO, fats, proteins
2. Used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
____% of potential food nutrients transfers to ATP
List 3 forms of energy transfer.
What is phosphorylation? Provide 2 examples.
1. Phosphorylation: 1 or more phosphate groups is added to an organic molecule
2. Aerobic respiration: Glucose phosphorylated in glycolysis
3. Substrate level/electron transport chain: ADP phosphorylated to ATP
What is a coenzyme? What is their function?
1. Non protein organic substance
2. Purpose: activate dormant enzymes
True or false: Vitamins are coenzymes that DO NOT supply energy for exercise
Supply energy for biologic work
Where are energy substrates stored? What mode of exercise can increase their concentration?
1. Stored in the myofibril
2. Increase via powerlifting
What is the currency for energy, used in all cell processes?
How many calories equate 1 ATP molecule?
List 2 properties associated with the splitting of ATP.
1. Occurs with or without O2
2. Requires only 1 chemical reaction
How much ATP is stored in the body? How much exercise can be done (duration) using the ATP reserve?
1. 3.5 oz is stored
2. allows for an all out bout of exercise lasting 10 sec
Sedentary person resynthesizes ___% of their body weight in ATP.
What are 2 sources of energy for ATP resynthesis?
CHO and Lipids
What is creatine phosphate?
Stored form of high energy phosphate
_____x greater concentration of creatine phosphate than ATP in the muscle cells.
Breakdown of creatine phosphate occurs ____ and without ____.
What are 3 ways ATP is synthesized?
1. Substrate Phosphorylation
2. Krebs Cycle
3. Cellular Oxidation
What is substrate phosphorylation? Where does it take place? How many ATP molecules does it form?
1. ANAEROBIC glycolysis that occurs in the cytoplasm
2. Yields 2 ATP molecules
True or False: Most energy in the body is used to make ATP and is not dissipated as heat.
Most energy is dissipated as heat, not used to make ATP
Lactic acid forms when _____ from NADH combine with _____.
List 2 things that lead to the formation of lactic acid.
1. Lack of O2 molecule as final H+ acceptor
2. Inadequate enzymes and metabolic machinery
What is the second stage of CHO breakdown?
What is the main function of the Krebs cycle? Where does the Krebs cycle take place? How many ATP does it yield?
1. Main function: degrade acytel CoA to CO2 and H atoms
2. Occurs in the mitochondria
3. Yields 2 ATP molecules
What must be present for the Krebs cycle to occur?
What are 3 components of aerobic metabolism?
1. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs)
2. Electron transport/respiratory chain
3. Oxidative phosphorylation (cellular oxidation)
What is cellular oxidation? How many ATP does it yield?
1. Reactions that involve transfer of O2, hydrogen atoms or electrons
2. Yields 32 ATP molecules
What 2 processes are involved in cellular oxidation?
Electron transport chain
What is the electron transport chain? When is the process complete?
1. Removal of electron from hydrogen and their ultimate delivery to O2
2. Oxidation complete when 2 electrons and 2 protons joint with O2 to form H2O
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
ATP synthesized from transfer of electrons from NADH to FADH2 to O2
List 3 prerequisites that must be met for continual ATP resynthesis.
1. Donor electron must be present in form of NADH or FADH2
2. Adequate O2 must be present as final electron and H acceptor
3. Enzymes and metabolic machinery must be present in sufficient concentration to move energy transfer reaction to completion
What are the 3 energy systems?
2. Lactic Acid System
3. Aerobic System
ATP-CP system supplies ____ energy via ATP and CP