Flashcards in Boer war- wider significance Deck (66):
When was the committee of imperial defence established?
What was the aim of the imperial defence committee?
Give strategic direction to defence planning
How sat on the imperial defence committee?
PM chaired. Political and service head of army, navy and intelligence.
Who headed the royal commission set up by Salisbury?
When was the royal commission set up?
When did the royal commission publish their report, what did it say?
1903, abolish the role of commander in chief.
What did the Esher report do?
Made detailed report on organisation of war office. Laid foundations for war office organisation and general staff.
When was the Esher report published?
Feb- March 1904
Who carried out the Esher report?
Lord Esher from the royal commission and the royal commissions secretary.
Who is at the top of the army council?
The secretary of war
Who is second highest in the army council?
Head of staff
What is the head of staff in charge of?
Planning and training.
Who is in charge of welfare and recruiting?
The adjuvant general.
Who is in charge of supplies and transport?
The quartmaster general.
What is the master general of ordnance in charge of?
Armaments and fortifications
What 2 changes were made to the ordinary soldiers equipment after the Boer war?
Khaki was the peacetime uniform
Shorter quick firing lee Enfield rifles introduced.
When were the drill books replaced?
Who was the director of training, what did they help implement?
What changed in the attitude to officers?
Their training was taken more seriously at staff college in Camberley. Haig instilled professionalism.
Where was a new military base created?
When did the liberals take office?
Who was the war minister in 1906?
Richard Burton Haldane.
What did Haldgane create?
Created a field force and territorial force
What did the territorial force replace?
Milita and volunteers.
How many in the TA in 1910?
276,618 including officers
What would the TA do if the field force mobilised and went to war?
Mobilise and train for war.
What regiment system was still being used?
Car dwells local regiment system.
What battalions would the field force make?
The first 2 in each regiment, the TA would fill later battalions.
What did the TA have?
Field divisions, artillery and transport.
How many members did the navy league have in 1913?
What did Baden Powell create?
The Boy Scouts
Who released popular patriotic poetry anthologies and when?
Newbolt 1904 and 1910
When was land of Hope and glory created?
Which author duded in May 1902 but books continued to be popular among school boys, implying to them British supremacy?
Which patriotic magazine was re-founded in 1903?
What 2 newspapers remained strongly imperialistic?
The Daily mail and the daily express
What was the tariff reform?
Chamberlain's plan to create a free market within the empire, making food outside the empire more expensive. Greatly effected 1906 election.
What split the Conservative party and caused Churchill and Seeley to join the liberal party?
Chamberlain's tariff reform.
What did the result of the 1906 election symbolise?
A change in attitudes, away from imperialism symbolised by the conservatives.
When and by whom was imperialism: a study published?
J.A Hobson in 1902
What was Hobson's view on imperialism?
Fuelled by capitalism, benefits only a minority and creates conflict. Later blamed ww1 on imperialism.
What was Hobson's role in the boer war?
Served in the war, also correspondent for Manchester guardian.
What percentage of exports were not in the empire?
What fraction of imports were from outside the empire?
What was rejected in 1908 by the House of Commons? By how many votes was it rejected?
The bill to officially recognise empire day. Rejected by 68 votes.
What did Milner approve after the boer war?
Importing indentured Chinese to repair damage. Not slaves but contractor obliged to work off cost of passage. Outrage.
Why did the workers object to Chinese slavery?
Thought they were trying to under cut wages.
What did chamberlain try to change about the empire?
Unify all of the empire.
What was the liberals attitude to Chamberlains plans?
They rejected it but had no alternative. Didn't prioritise imperial affairs, muddled along between 1906-1914
When did Milner resign?
When was self government introduced for the OFS and the Transvaal?
Who formed 'The People' party in South Africa and when did they form it?
Louis Botha and Jan Smuts former boer leaders in 1905
When was Botha elected president of the Transvaal?
When was the South African bill passed? What did it do?
1909, recognised South Africa in 1910 as self governing dominion like Australia.
Who was churchills favourite must trusted advisor?
Jan smuts, PM of Transvaal in ww2.
Why was the boer war important to the world wars?
Cape was strategically important and the Boers fought bravely for empire.
When was the free school meal act passed?
What social reform passed in 1907?
Health inspections in school.
When was national insurance introduced?
How many volunteers in Manchester in 1899 were turned down for being unfit?
3 in 5
What did Rowntree discover about Boer recruits?
29% of 3600 volunteers were accepted as 'specials'. Recruiters hoped training would make them fit enough to fight. 27.5% couldn't fight for being too unfit.
What was published in 1904?
The committee for physical deterioration report. They said there was a decline in race and that the empire and British supremacy was under threat.
What was the first study of the Boer war and when was it published? What did it focus on?
The Times History of The War in South Africa by LS Amery published 1900 - 1909.
It focused on military incompetence, unfair to Buller.
Why were their concerns over the effect the Boer war had on the black population? When were these raised?
Non whites were banned from sitting in the new South African parliament, and denied basic civil rights. Many felt white unity in South Africa had come at the cost of the black community.
This was first raised in 1979.
What 3 areas were the targets of the populations concern for the empire?
Competitiveness of industry, health and education.