Flashcards in Boer War- causes and course Deck (60):
What was the 'Great Trek'?
When the Dutch settled in the cape and gradually moved northwards in the 17th-19th centuries.
When did Britain gain the cape?
During the napoleonic wars, it was settled in a treaty in 1814-15.
When was slavery abolished?
When did Britain annexe Natal and the Dutch form the O.F.S and the Transvaal?
When was the Zulu war?
When did Kruger become president?
When was the first Boer war?
Why is the Zulu war significant?
All 4 states united, the wanting of independence afterwards by the Dutch states triggering the first Boer war.
What happened in the First Boer war?
Gladstone was going to give independence as liberal and over stretched by Afghanistan, Kruger create humiliating defeat on many a hill against 400 Brit troops. Believes this was what gave them independence.
When was the Jameson raid?
Planned 1895, carried out in Dec.
What was the Jameson raid?
Rhode (Cape PM and diamond millionaire) planned for uitlanders to seize Johannesburg and overthrow gov. Dr Jameson led 600 men to Johannesburg but boers knew and attempt failed.
Why was the Jameson Raid significant?
Rhode resign as PM
Kruger prepare for war
OFS and Transvaal united against Britain and uitlanders.
When and where was Gold found?
1886 in Witwatersand in Transvaal
How much Gold did the Transvaal supply in 1898?
27% of the worlds gold.
How did the discovery of Gold increase tension?
Lots of British immigrants as mainly German and British money invested. They were ruled by Calvinistic farmers, given less rights and made to pay higher tax. They alongside the mine owners wanted imperial rule.
For the British Gov it increased tension as it shifted focus north, away from British rule. Cape strategically key for Britain, can't be under influence of hostile Boer republic. Need to reassert control.
What was the trigger for the UK gov to step in?
The death of Tom Edgar by a Boer police officer. Petition to Queen by Uitlanders. Milner apply pressure to Kruger for equal rights.
What happened in May 1899?
Conference. Kruger says Uitlanders can have vote after 7yrs if Transvaal domestically independent Milner walks out.
What was Britain's Ultimation and when was it delivered?
Uitlanders get full citizenship or war.
What was Kruger's response?
Withdraw troops or war.
When was war declared?
11 October 1899
How much private income was an officer of the lowest infantry meant to have?
How much private income should a calvary officer have?
How much were Tommy's paid?
1 shilling a day
What food were Tommy's given?
3/4 pound of meat, pound of bread and a measure of rum daily.
What happened at the Haymarket theatre?
3 Officers were asked to leave.
When was flogging banned?
1881, 1907 in military prisons.
When was Khaki introduced?
When was the Royal army medical corps created?
How many regulars did the army have in 1899?
How many regular reservists did the army have?
78000. 60,70000 in India, another 70,000 abroad.
militia of 65,000, did a month training a year, 35000 could be sent abroad for an extra £1 p.a.
23,000 volunteers that can't be sent abroad.
How many troops did each army have?
Boer: 50,000 plus 500 foreigners
British:14,750 initial. 22,000 with india reinforcements. 84,000 by 1 Dec.
How much did each army spend on intelligence?
Boer: 90,000 p.a
British: 11,000 p.a for whole empire.
When was White replaced by Buller?
1st December 1899
What weapons did they use?
Boers: 1896 Mausser rifle with smokeless powder
British: Lee Enfiled rifle.
How long till a Boer solider could go on leave?
How big was the fighting area?
The size of France
How many of the initial 84,000 soldiers were infantry?
Where were the 3 seiges?
Mafeking- Baden Powell held out till May 1st then was seiged.
Kimberley- Rhodes and troops cut of by Cronje's Boer troops
Ladysmith- Sir White and 10,000 troops seiged.
How did Buller split his forces?
1) Meuthen to go to relieve Kimberley and Mafeking
2) Gatacre, go to North cape to protect Cape and 2 railways
3) Buller, go to relieve Ladysmith
When was Black week?
10-15th Dec 1899
How many casulties did Meuthen suffer in Black week? Did he retreat?
11 Dec- 900 casulties, pinned to floor for 10 hrs. Retreat to Modder river.
How many casulties did Buller concede during Black week on the Tunjela river?
15 Dec- 1500 casualties. The Boers only suffered 8.
What happened to Gatacre during Black week?
walked into Boer forces at railway junction. 135 casulties, 561 taken prisoner.
Who did The Uk gov send as 'heroes'?
Field Marshal Lord Roberts and Kitchener as head of staff.
How did Queen Vic respond to Black week.
We are not concerned by the possibility of defeat. it does not exist.
What did Roberts do in Feb 1900?
Relieved Kimberley on 15th Feb, after reaching Modder River on the 1st.
Conjre troops surrender after being surrounded on 27th Feb.
What did Buller achieve on the 25th Feb?
Relieve Ladysmith. Competent in next 6mnths in harder terrain in Natal than Roberts.
What happened in March 1900?
Capital of OFS is captured.
Why was there a delay of 2 months in capturing Johannesburg after Roberts caught the capital of OFS?
Supply problems as over dependent on railway. Typhoid broke out killing more than were killed by Boers.
When was Johannesburg captured?
End of May
When was Pretoria captured?
First week of June
When did Buller and Roberts leave?
When did Kitchener become Commandeer in chief?
What policy did Kitchener implement in 1901?
Scorched earth policy and concentration camps.
What policy did the Boers implement in 1901?
Guerrilla warfare, targeting small holdings and railway lines.
When was peace agreed?
31st May 1902
What was the treaty called?
Treaty of Vereeniging
What did the treaty state?
OFS and Transvaal part of empire
Amnesty for Boer soldiers and Britain pay 3m to help repair damage.
OFS and Transvaal may be able to govern independently. No date set.
How much did the war cost Britain?