Bone Basics Flashcards Preview

Patho 2 Final MSK > Bone Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Basics Deck (55):
1

5 categories of bone function

support, protection, movement, resivoir, hematopoiesis

2

3 supports

weight of body, teeth with pressure, organ and other tissues

3

3 protections

skull- brain, rib/sternum : heart and lungs, vert: spinal cord

4

axial skeleton is..

skull, vertebral coloumn and rib cage "long axis"

5

appendicular skeleton is..

pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, limbs,
locomotion and manipulation of environment

6

4 types of bones

long, short, flat, irregular

7

short bone ex

wrist and ankle bones - cubes

8

flat bone ex

skull, scapulae, sternum, ribs
- curved

9

long bone ex

all limb bones except girdles and wrist/ ankle and patella

10

spongy bone aka

trabecular bone
- honeycomb of needle like projections
- in adults adipose collects in space of honeycomb

11

osteoblasts

blasts build and produce and secrete collagen
initiates calcification process

12

osteocytes

mature bone cells responsible for maintannecne

13

osteoclasts

break down the bone
huge cells created from fusion of 50+ monocytes (baby macrophages)

14

where are osteoclasts concentrated?

endosteum

15

what bone cell has a ruffled border?

osteoclasts when they are close to bone surface so they can increase SA and secrete digestive enzymes

16

osteoclasts destroy bone via...

digestive enzymes and pump out H+ to create acidic environment

17

what is bone matrix made up mostly of

calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide

18

bone matrix salts combine to make___

hydroxyapatite which contains some F, Na, and Mg

19

how is bone matrix laid down?

collagen fragments in segments and in gaps

20

in kids __ marrow might be in long bones

red

21

in adults long bones have ___

yellow marrow

22

where do adults have red marrow?

axial skeleton, girdles (pectoral and pelvic) proximal head of humerus and femur

23

what is outer periosteum made from?

fibrous, dense irregular CT

24

___ is how blood vessels enter the shaft of a bone

via nutrient foramen

25

periosteum covers whole bone except___

joint surfaces

26

endosteum

delicate CT membrane that covers internal bone surfaces

27

endosteum

delicate CT membrane that covers internal bone surfaces

28

___ contains both osteoblasts and clasts

endosteum

29

what do short, irregular and flat bones NOT have

diaphysis, epiphysis or medullary cavity

30

osteons aka

haversian systems

31

what passes through haversian canal?

veins, arteries, nervs lymphatics

32

concentric tubes called ___ surround the hav. canal

lamella

33

lacuna are

at the junctions of lamella and where spider shaped osteocytes live

34

Volkmann canals are__

run perpendicular to the haversian canals bringing blood and nerve supply from periosteum to haversian canals onto the marrow cavity

35

canaliculi allows ___ to excahange nutrients, wastes, and chem signals via ____

osteocytes
gap junctions

36

T/F spongy bone has haversian systems

F

37

T/F spongy bone has osteons?

F (same as haversian system)

38

trabeculae bone has ___arranged ___ and osteocytes connected by ____

irregulary arranged lamella
canallici

39

How does spongy bone get its blood supply?

if its filled with red marrow then from red marrow
If filled with yellow marrow then from Volkmanns channels

40

when does bone replacement start in utero

after 8 wks

41

intramembranous ossification is development of bone from ___

fibrous membranes (mesenchyme)and cartilage

42

endochondral ossification is the replacement of ___ with bone

hyaline cartilage

43

where does intramembraneous ossification occur?

skull, face, mandible, clavicle, pelvis, scap

44

4 steps of intramembraneous

1. creation of ossification center
2. creation of bone maintenance mechanism
3. vascularization
4. maturation

45

how long does callus formation take?

6-8 wks

46

what vitamins do you need for bones?

A B12 CD, K

47

what hormone is responsible for calcium and phosphate absorption

calcitriol

48

GH and thyroxine ___ bone growth

stimulate

49

calcitonin is released in response to ___ and causes ___

high calcium levels and causes decreased clast activity and increased blast activity

bottom line: builds up bone

50

parathyroid hormone is released in response to ___ and causes ___

low blood calcium and BINDS to blasts to lower activity
blasts release osteoclast stim factor = boosts clasts

Bottom line PTH breaks bone down

51

osteomalacia possible cause

poor nurtrition / low calcium levels

Osteoid is produced by inadequately mineralized

52

Rickest is

osteomalacia in kids: bowed legs, deformities of pelvis ribs skull etc

53

typically osteomyelitis is ___

infection primary to bone

54

what is RF for osteomyelitis

IV drug use

55

common fx related to osteoporosis

compression fx vertebrae, femur, colles radial and distal ulna