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ESA 1 - Body Logistics > Bone diseases (new) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone diseases (new) Deck (12):


- Metabolic bone disease in which mineralised bone is decreased en mass - no longer provides adequate mechanical support.
- Always reflects enhanced bone resorption relative to formation.


Why is there an increased susceptibility to fracture in osteoporosis?

Loss of mass within trabecular bone.


What is the difference between type 1 and 2 primary osteoporosis?

Type 1
- occurs in post-menopausal women
- due to an increased osteoclast no. as a result of oestrogen withdrawal

Type 2
- occurs in elderly (>70yrs) of both sexes
- due to attenuated osteoblast function - incomplete filling osteoclast resorption bays


When does bone mass peak and decline?

Peaks between 25-35yrs, declines in 5th or 6th decade


What are the risk factors for osteoporosis?

1. Genetic: peak bone mass is higher in blacks than in whites or asians
2. Gender: women more at risk than men
3. Exercise: physical activity required to maintain bone mass.
4. Smoking
5. Insufficient calcium intake
6. Insufficient calcium absorption and vitamin D (decreased renal activation of vitamin D with age)


Give 3 differences between OSTEOPOROSIS and OSTEOMALACIA.

i) total bone loss due to decrease in bone mass
ii) common in post-menopausal women
iii) asymptomatic, increased risk of fracture

i) mineral bone loss due to vitD deficiency in adults (causing inadequate mineralisation of bone)
ii) common in dark skinned individuals, reduced vitD in diet (vegetarians), pregnancy...
iii) symptoms: pain, weakness, tiredness


What is OSTEOMALACIA and why does it occur?

Loss of mineral bone in adults due to vitamin D deficiency.
VitD is required for calcium reabsorption in small intestine - no VitD means to calcium hydroxyapatite to mineralise bone.


What is the difference between OSTEOARTHRITIS and RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS?

- wear and tear of joint cartilage (exact cause unclear)
- bone tissue next to cartilage can also be affected - osteophytes (bony growth) can develop around the joint edges
- joint and tissues become inflammed (synovitis)

Rheumatoid arthritis:
- chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease
- charasterised by inflammation of the synovial joints - joint and periarticular tissue destruction and wide variety of extra-articular features (e.g. bone erosion)


Name the signs and symptoms of acutely inflammed rheumatoid arthritic joints.

1. Rubor (redness)
2. Calor (heat)
3. Dolor (pain)
4. Tumor (swelling)
5. Functio laesa (loss of function)


What is a SLIPPED EPIPHYSIS? Who does it most commonly affect?

- Capital (upper) epiphysis of femur slips sideways off end of femur.
- Most commonly affects teenage boys (will have ossified in older people) who are overweight.


What are the symptoms and treatment of a slipped epiphysis?

Symptoms: pain in hip/knee and limping.

Treatment: surgery to prevent epiphysis movement.



Childhood disorder in which blood supply to femoral epiphyseal growth plate become inadequate causing avascular necrosis of femoral head.