Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (12):
What are the 6 signs of skin inflammation?
1. Rubor (redness)
2. Calor (heat)
3. Tumor (swelling)
4. Dolor (pain)
5. Functio laesa (loss of function)
6. Pruritus (itch)
Name 3 inflammatory skin conditions.
What is the presentation of eczema?
Itchy red rash that favours the skin creases, e.g. Folds of elbows, behind the knees, fronts of ankles or around the neck (or cheeks in <18 months).
What are the trigger factors for eczema?
- Irritants (e.g. Soaps and detergents)
- Skin infections (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus)
- Extremes of temperature and humidity (worse in winter)
- Abrasive fabrics (e.g. Wool)
- Dietary factors
- Inhaled allergens (e.g. Pollens and moulds)
- Hormonal changes
What therapies are recommended in eczema?
- Skin hydration - emollients and water (e.g. Baths)
- Topical steroids (corticosteroids)
- Antibiotics if bacterial infection
What is the presentation of psoriasis?
- Itchy, well demarcated red plaques with overlying white scale.
- Distributed symmetrically over extensor body surfaces and scalp.
What causes psoriasis?
- T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder (multiple genetic and environmental factors).
- T-cells induced to produce cytokines: stimulate keratinocyte proliferation (faster turnover of skin cells).
What is acne?
- Disorder of the pilosebaceous follicles found in face and upper trunk.
- At puberty, androgens increase production of sebum from enlarged sebaceous glands that become blocked. Probionibacterium acnes is involved in lesion production although its exact role is unclear.
- Inflammation leads to papules, pustules and nodules.
What do the terms papule, nodule, vesicle, bulla and pustule mean?
- papule = small lump (<5mm)
- nodule = larger lump (5-10mm)
- vesicle = small water blister
- bulla = large water blister
- pustule = puss-filled vesicle
What do the terms macule, patch and plaque mean?
- macule = non-palpable area of discoloration
- patch = macule >2cm
- plaque = palpable, flat-topped area >2cm
What do the terms erosion and ulcer mean?
- erosion = loss of epidermis (superficial)
- ulcer = loss of epidermis and dermis (deep)