The Breast Flashcards Preview

ESA 1 - Body Logistics > The Breast > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Breast Deck (15):
1

What is the breast?

- Modified apocrine sweat gland.
- Part of the reproductive system: responds to sexual stimulation and to feed babies.

2

How do breasts develop?

1. Breast buds appear in both sexes in 6th - 9th months of foetal life.
2. At puberty, female breasts develop under influence of oestrogen and progesterone.
3. Final maturation during 1st pregnancy: mammary glands branch out and expand in response to progesterone and prolactin.
4. Regression following menopause.

3

Where are breasts located?

- Overlie pectoralis major muscles on left and right sides.
- From 2nd-6th ribs.
- From sternal edge to anterior axillary line.

4

What are breasts supported by?

Cooper's suspensory ligaments

5

What is breast tissue made up of?

1. Mostly of adipose tissue (supports glandular structures)
2. Mammary glands
- 15-20 lobes encased in a network of myoepithelial cells (contract and squeeze down on glands to excrete milk)
- milk drained towards nipple via lactiferous ducts
- expelled through nipple pores

6

What are the functions of areolae?

1. Contain areolar glands which secrete lipoid fluid - moisturises nipple during breastfeeding.
2. Darkened areolae provide target for baby to aim for.

7

Describe the blood supply to the breast.

1. Internal mammary arteries (derived from internal thoracic artery) - predominant blood supply.
2. External mammary arteries (lateral thoracic and thoracoaromial) and posterior intercostal arteries - further blood supply.

3. Axillary vein - venous drainage of breast.

8

What is lactation?

Process where milk is made and ejected from the mammary glands inside the female breasts.

9

How is lactation activated?

1. Baby starts to suckle - activates nipple mechanoreceptors - signalling up spinal cord to hypothalamus.
2. Hypothalamus releases:
i) Activatory signals to oxytocin neurons in posterior pituitary - oxytocin production.
ii) Inhibitory signals to PIH (prolactin inhibitory hormone) in anterior pituitary - prolactin production.

- Cascade stimulated by the sound of any babies' cry.

10

What are the effects of prolactin and oxytocin?

- Prolactin: stimulates mammary gland to produce milk.
- Oxytocin: stimulates myoepithelial cells surrounding glands.

11

What is accessory breast tissue?

- Relatively common congenital condition: abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition of normal breast tissue.
- Can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to inguinal region).

12

What is Poland syndrome?

Rare birth defect characterised by:
- underdevelopment/absence of chest muscle (pectoralis) on 1 side of the body
- webbing of the fingers (cutaneous syndactyly) of ipsilateral hand

13

What is the most common cancer in women in the UK?

- Breast cancer
- 1/8 women
- >40,000 cases/year
- >10,000 deaths/year

14

Which factors increase the risk of breast cancer?

- woman
- age
- family history
- personal history of breast cancer
- genetics
- alcohol
- obesity
- radiation
- high socioeconomic class

15

Which factors decrease the risk of breast cancer?

- 1st pregnancy before age 30
- breast feeding
- exercise
- healthy organic diet?