What movement is restricted as the glenohumeral capsule tightens with age?
What two structures on the humerus articulate with the radius and ulnar?
Which rotator cuff muscle lie posteriorly to the joint?
Which joints are contained in the elbow complex capsule
Proximal radioulnar joint
What are the attachments of the lateral collateral ligament?
Why are children more likely to get student's elbow?
The annular ligament is weaker in children
Describe two features of hyaline/articular cartilage
What are the names of the two collateral ligaments of the elbow complex?
Medical collateral ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
What do the collateral ligaments attach to?
What can happen if the rotator cuff muscles are weak?
The humerus slide upwards with the movement of the deltoid
What commonly happens the subacromial bursa in certain sports?
What aspect/side of the ulnar is the coronoid process on?
What happens to hyaline cartilage with age?
It breaks down and is replaced by bone
What is the scapulo-thoracic joint?
A pseudo-joint between the scapulae and chest wall
What do all hinge joint have?
Why is the a fold in the glenohumeral capsule?
Increase range of motion
Which rotator cuff muscle lie anterior to the joint?
What does the synovial membrane do?
Lines all non-articular surfaces within the capsule
What is located in the olecranon fossa?
Olecranon bursae - fat pads to facilitate movement
Which radioulnar joint has a triangular fibrocartilage complex (disc)?
The distal one
What are bursae?
Sacks of synovial fluid
What is the purpose of having an attachment between the LCL and annular ligament?
Allows pronation and supination of forearm
What makes the acromioclavicular joint vunerable to dislocation?
It is in the sagittal plane
How can you test if the axillary nerve has been damaged in a dislocation?
Prick the skin innervated by that nerve
What joins the shaft of the ulnar and radius?
What is a labrum?
Fibrous socket that increases the depth of a joint
Which side of the humerus does the head of the radius articulate?
What is cubitus vulgus?
Abnormal abduction of forearm when in extension
How does the clavicle afffect the glenohumeral joint?
Increase the range of motion
What is the name of the feature of the ulnar that forms the point of the elbow?
What does the coracoclavicular joint connect?
Coronoid tubercle of the clavicle to the coronoid process of the scapulae
What does congruent mean in terms of joints?
There is a relatively high amount of surface articulating
When does subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint occur?
Rarely, mainly associated with trauma
Describe two features of the glenohumeral joint
Incongruenous - large head of humerus into shallow gleno fossa
Loose capsule on the medial surface - enables movement
What are the names of the joints of the clavicle?
What is the function of fat pad within a joint?
Spread synovial fluid
What stabilises the acromioclavicular joint?
What can attach to a labrum?
What type of dislocation is associated with a fracture of the coronoid process?
In what position is the elbow joint most secure?
What is the difference between an epiphysis and fracture on a x-ray?
Fracture are jagged, epiphyses are straight
What muscle attaches to the gleno-labrum?
Long head of the bicep
Describe a grade 3 acromioclavicular subluxation
The acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligament are both ruptured
What are the 5 layers of the glenohumeral joint
What stabilises fibrous capsules?
Where does the capsule of the glenohumeral joint attach to the humerus
Anatomical neck above
Surgical neck below
What are the implications of the tight connection between bones made by the interosseous membrane?
A force that breaks one bone can be transferred to break the other
The two RU joints function as together
What rotator cuff muscles lies superiorly to the joint
Which rotator cuff muscles lie inferiorly to the joint?
What are the key features of the sternoclavicular joint?
Strong fibrouscapsule and intra-articular disc
Costoclavicular joint for stability
What can cubitus vulgus result in?
Friction of the ulnar nerve
Which collateral ligament of the of the elbow joint is stronger?
Where the rotator muscle originate and insert?
Originate - Scapulae
Insert - Glenohumeral capsule
What is the most common direction of shoulder dislocation? Why?
No inferior rotator cuff muscle
What are the potential complications with bursae?
Infection can spread through them
What is an avulsion injury?
An injury where there is tear off of a limb
What is an epiphyses?
The end of a long bone that articulates at a joint
What is the function of disc/menisci within joints?
Fill out any irregularities
What are the 4 muscles of the rotator cuff?
What is the function of collateral ligaments?
Prevent abduction and adduction
What occurs in students elbow?
Radial head is pulled out of the annular ligament
What 2 structures protect the head of the humerus?
Where do fat pads lie within joints?
Intra-articular but extrasynovial
Where are three common sites for fracture of the humerus?
Where are factures of the clavicle most common?
Between the lateral 1/3 and medial 2/3s - the point of greatest curvature therefore weakness
Name the carpal bones, from lateral to medial
What is a sesamoid bone?
A bone located in a tendon
What type of bone are metacarpals?
What do sesamoid bones do?
Create a tunnel
What forms the floor and proximal wall of the anatomical snuff box?
Wall: Styloid process radius
What do retinaculum do?
Hold down tendons, in and around joint usually
Which nerve is affected in carpal tunnel syndrome?
Where are the sesamoid bones of in the hand?
Pisiform - carpal
Index finger (aka second finger)
Which tendon is the pisiform bone inside?
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Which carpals bones have tubercles?
Which carpal bone is the largest?
Which carpals make up the radialcarpal joint?
Which is the first carpal to ossify?
In what direction do the carpal bone sequentially ossify?
What type of joint is the radiocarpal joint?
What makes up the wrist complex?
What movements happen at the wrist complex?
Which movement is greatest at the wrist, flexion or extension?
Which movement is greatest at the wrist, ulnar or radial deviation?
Which intercarpal joint is the most important?
Scaphoid and lunate with the capitate
How do the movements at intercarpals differ from the radiocarpal?
Greater radial deviation
What direction do the intercarpal ligaments generally run?
From the radius to across to the carpals
What is the primarily purpose of the intercarpal ligaments?
Preventing the carpals from sliding proxi-medially
Which side of the palm has more ligaments, the palmar or dorsal?
Where do the tendons of the forearm muscles generally attach?
Where is the radius most commonly fractured?
Which carpal is most commonly fractured?
Which carpal is most commonly subluxed?
What does FOOSH stand for?
Fall on out stretched hand
What commonly results from a fall on out stretched hand?
Fracture of distal radius causing dinner fork structure
What can happen to scaphoid blood supply after a fracture?
Blood supply to the proximal end is removed - avascular necrosis
What type of joint in the thumb carpometacarpal?
What movements happen at the metacarpophalangeal joints?
What extra movement does the thumb joint allow?
What is a condyloid joint?
Oval shape into ellipsoid cavity
What is the volar plate?
Fibrocartilaginous joint that increases the articular surface of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal
What occurs in a Swan neck deformity?
A phalanx bone breaks through the ventral volar plate
What occurs in a Boutonniere deformity?
Phalanx breaks through a dorsal volar plate