Bones and Joints of the Upper limb Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Musculo-Skeletal > Bones and Joints of the Upper limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones and Joints of the Upper limb Deck (103)
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1

What movement is restricted as the glenohumeral capsule tightens with age?

Abduction

1

What two structures on the humerus articulate with the radius and ulnar?

Capitulum

Trochlea

2

Which rotator cuff muscle lie posteriorly to the joint?

Teres minor

Infraspinatus

2

Which joints are contained in the elbow complex capsule

Elbow joint

Proximal radioulnar joint

2

What are the attachments of the lateral collateral ligament?

Humerus 

Annular ligament

2

Why are children more likely to get student's elbow?

The annular ligament is weaker in children

3

Describe two features of hyaline/articular cartilage

Avascular

Aneural

3

What are the names of the two collateral ligaments of the elbow complex?

Medical collateral ligament

Lateral collateral ligament

4

What do the collateral ligaments attach to?

The epicondyles

5

What can happen if the rotator cuff muscles are weak?

The humerus slide upwards with the movement of the deltoid

6

What commonly happens the subacromial bursa in certain sports?

Bursitis

6

What aspect/side of the ulnar is the coronoid process on?

Anterior

7

What happens to hyaline cartilage with age?

It breaks down and is replaced by bone

7

What is the scapulo-thoracic joint?

A pseudo-joint between the scapulae and chest wall

8

What do all hinge joint have?

Collateral ligaments

 

10

Why is the a fold in the glenohumeral capsule?

Increase range of motion

11

Which rotator cuff muscle lie anterior to the joint?

Subscapularis

12

What does the synovial membrane do?

Lines all non-articular surfaces within the capsule

13

What is located in the olecranon fossa?

Olecranon bursae - fat pads to facilitate movement

14

Which radioulnar joint has a triangular fibrocartilage complex (disc)?

The distal one

15

What are bursae?

Sacks of synovial fluid

 

15

What is the purpose of having an attachment between the LCL and annular ligament?

Allows pronation and supination of forearm

16

What makes the acromioclavicular joint vunerable to dislocation?

It is in the sagittal plane

17

How can you test if the axillary nerve has been damaged in a dislocation?

Prick the skin innervated by that nerve

17

What joins the shaft of the ulnar and radius?

Interosseous membrane

19

What is a labrum?

Fibrous socket that increases the depth of a joint

20

Which side of the humerus does the head of the radius articulate?

Lateral

20

What is cubitus vulgus?

Abnormal abduction of forearm when in extension

22

How does the clavicle afffect the glenohumeral joint?

Increase the range of motion

23

What is the name of the feature of the ulnar that forms the point of the elbow?

Olecranon

24

What does the coracoclavicular joint connect?

Coronoid tubercle of the clavicle to the coronoid process of the scapulae

25

What does congruent mean in terms of joints?

There is a relatively high amount of surface articulating

25

When does subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint occur?

Rarely, mainly associated with trauma

26

Describe two features of the glenohumeral joint

Incongruenous - large head of humerus into shallow gleno fossa

Loose capsule on the medial surface - enables movement

27

What are the names of the joints of the clavicle?

Stenoclavicular joint

Acromioclavicular joint

 

29

What is the function of fat pad within a joint?

Spread synovial fluid

30

What stabilises the acromioclavicular joint?

Coracoclavicular ligament

32

What can attach to a labrum?

Muscle

33

What type of dislocation is associated with a fracture of the coronoid process?

Posterior

34

In what position is the elbow joint most secure?

Full extension

35

What is the difference between an epiphysis and fracture on a x-ray?

Fracture are jagged, epiphyses are straight

36

What muscle attaches to the gleno-labrum?

Long head of the bicep

38

Describe a grade 3 acromioclavicular subluxation

The acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligament are both ruptured

39

What are the 5 layers of the glenohumeral joint

Bone

Labrum

Capsule

Tendons

Coraco-acromial ligaments

41

What stabilises fibrous capsules?

Intrinsic/extrinsic ligaments

Muscles

42

Where does the capsule of the glenohumeral joint attach to the humerus

Anatomical neck above

Surgical neck below

43

What are the implications of the tight connection between bones made by the interosseous membrane?

 A force that breaks one bone can be transferred to break the other

The two RU joints function as together

45

What rotator cuff muscles lies superiorly to the joint

Supraspinatus

46

Which rotator cuff muscles lie inferiorly to the joint?

None

48

What are the key features of the sternoclavicular joint?

Strong fibrouscapsule and intra-articular disc

Very stable

Costoclavicular joint for stability

49

What can cubitus vulgus result in?

Friction of the ulnar nerve

50

Which collateral ligament of the of the elbow joint is stronger?

The medial

52

Where the rotator muscle originate and insert?

Originate - Scapulae

Insert - Glenohumeral capsule

53

What is the most common direction of shoulder dislocation? Why?

Inferio-anterior

No inferior rotator cuff muscle

54

What are the potential complications with bursae?

Infection can spread through them

55

What is an avulsion injury?

An injury where there is tear off of a limb

57

What is an epiphyses?

The end of a long bone that articulates at a joint

58

What is the function of disc/menisci within joints?

Absorb shock

Fill out any irregularities

59

What are the 4 muscles of the rotator cuff?

Teres minor

Infraspinatus

Supraspinatus

Subscapularis

60

What is the function of collateral ligaments?

Prevent abduction and adduction

61

What occurs in students elbow?

Radial head is pulled out of the annular ligament

62

What 2 structures protect the head of the humerus?

Subacromial bursa

Subacromial ligament

63

Where do fat pads lie within joints?

Intra-articular but extrasynovial

64

Where are three common sites for fracture of the humerus?

Surgical neck

Mid-shaft

Supracondylar

65

Where are factures of the clavicle most common?

Between the lateral 1/3 and medial 2/3s - the point of greatest curvature therefore weakness

66

Name the carpal bones, from lateral to medial

Scaphoid

Lunate

Triquetral

Pisiform

Trapezium

Trapezoid

Capitate

Hamate

67

What is a sesamoid bone?

A bone located in a tendon

68

What type of bone are metacarpals?

Long bone

69

What do sesamoid bones do?

Create a tunnel 

Reduce friction

70

What forms the floor and proximal wall of the anatomical snuff box?

Floor: scaphoid 

Wall: Styloid process radius

71

What do retinaculum do?

Hold down tendons, in and around joint usually

 

72

Which nerve is affected in carpal tunnel syndrome?

Median nerve

73

Where are the sesamoid bones of in the hand?

Pisiform - carpal

Thumb x2

Index finger (aka second finger)

74

Which tendon is the pisiform bone inside?

Flexor carpi ulnaris

75

Which carpals bones have tubercles?

Scaphoid

Trapezium

76

Which carpal bone is the largest?

Capitate

77

Which carpals make up the radialcarpal joint?

Scaphoid

Lunate

78

Which is the first carpal to ossify?

Capitate

79

In what direction do the carpal bone sequentially ossify?

Anti-clockwise

80

What type of joint is the radiocarpal joint?

Synovial, Ellipsoid

81

What makes up the wrist complex?

Radiocarpal joint

Intercarpal joint

82

What movements happen at the wrist complex?

Flexion/Extension

Radial/Ulnar deviation

83

Which movement is greatest at the wrist, flexion or extension?

Flexion

84

Which movement is greatest at the wrist, ulnar or radial deviation?

Ulnar

85

Which intercarpal joint is the most important?

Scaphoid and lunate with the capitate

86

How do the movements at intercarpals differ from the radiocarpal?

Opposite 

Greater flexion

Greater radial deviation

87

What direction do the intercarpal ligaments generally run?

From the radius to across to the carpals

88

What is the primarily purpose of the intercarpal ligaments?

Preventing the carpals from sliding proxi-medially

89

Which side of the palm has more ligaments, the palmar or dorsal?

Palmar

90

Where do the tendons of the forearm muscles generally attach?

Metacarpals

91

Where is the radius most commonly fractured?

Distal end

 

92

Which carpal is most commonly fractured?

Scaphoid

93

Which carpal is most commonly subluxed?

Lunate

94

What does FOOSH stand for?

Fall on out stretched hand

95

What commonly results from a fall on out stretched hand?

Fracture of distal radius causing dinner fork structure

96

What can happen to scaphoid blood supply after a fracture?

Blood supply to the proximal end is removed - avascular necrosis

97

What type of joint in the thumb carpometacarpal?

Saddle

98

What movements happen at the metacarpophalangeal joints?

Extension/Flexion

Add/Abd

99

What extra movement does the thumb joint allow?

Opposition

100

What is a condyloid joint?

Oval shape into ellipsoid cavity

101

What is the volar plate?

Fibrocartilaginous joint that increases the articular surface of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal

102

What occurs in a Swan neck deformity?

A phalanx bone breaks through the ventral volar plate

103

What occurs in a Boutonniere deformity?

Phalanx breaks through a dorsal volar plate