Botany Flashcards Preview

Life on Earth > Botany > Flashcards

Flashcards in Botany Deck (81):
1

who was lamark

botainst who started to think about relationships between organisms; created breaching diagrams with dichotmous branches

2

homology

same trait in different animals under variety of forms and functiosn from a shared ancestor

3

analogy

different organs with the same functions of different animals; through convergent and parallele evolution

4

what do unique homologies do?

they defined groups; homologous structure are derived from a sructure in a shared common ancestor

5

example of homology in plants

cacti and euphorbias;

they ahve different bodily structures but stimilar functions

have analogous chemical patterns

6

eukarya

- amoebozoa
=alveolus
-rhizaria
-heterokonts
-discnistates
-excavates

7

plants

land plants
red algae
plasinophyte algae
charaphyte algage
chlorophye algae

8

what is a plant

a living organisms of the kind exemplified by trees, herbs, grasses, ferns, moses, typically growing in a PERMANENT site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using chlorphyll

- autotroph

9

land plants

bryophytes (liverworts, hornworts, mosses)
lycophytes
pterophytes
gymnosperms
angiosperms

10

bryophytes examples

non vascular plants; includes:
liver worts

hornworts

mosses

11

charophylean

non-land plant sister group

12

vascular plants examples

lycophytes pterophytes gymnosperms angiosperms

13

seedless vascular plants examples

lycophytes
pterophytes

14

seed vascular plants examples

gymnosperms and angosperms

15

lycophytes examples

seedless vascular plants;
includes lycopods
quill worts
moses

16

pterophytes examples

ferns and horsetails

17

liverworts examples

thaliod
leafy

18

hornworts examples

thalliod

19

gymnosperms examples

conifers
cycads
ginko
gretaces

20

angiosperm examples

(flowering plants)

monocots
eudicots
ana grade

21

when and from what did land plants evolve

475 mya from green algae

22

issue with classification

different eurkayotes and prokaryotes also photosynthesisze; hence classification difficult

23

examples of photosynthesizng organisms

amobea and euglionds

heterkonts (diatoms and brown algae)

albeolates (dinoflagalletes)

red algae

plants (green algase, mosses, gymnosperms, ferns, flower plants, etc)

24

photosynthesis formula

carbon dioxide + water --- (energy)--> glucose + oxygen

25

where does photosynthesis occur

in organelles (chloroplats) derived from symbiotic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

26

what is endosymbiosis

one organism inside another that tells us about shared lineae (red algae, green algae and land plants)

27

primary endosymbiosis?

(a prokaryote [cyanobacteria] and a heterotrophic eukaryote);
LARGE scale gene transfer
occured only once

28

secondary endosymbiosis?

product of the first endosymbiosis was enguled by another free living eukaryote

(eukaryote + eukaryote)

it occurred several times and resulted in diverse species

29

what did primary endosymbiosis produce?

red algae (ghodopyte)
glaucophyte
chlorphyte (green algae)
land plants

30

what did secondary endosymbiosis produce?

euglenids

chlorachiphytes

land plants


stramenophiles

heterokonts

dinoflagellates

31

how do we know chloroplats are cyanobacteria?

morphology and structural evidence

molecular similarities (similar gene sequences and plasmiids_

32

cyanobacteriam

a small lineage in a bacteria; spirulina 'beads on a string' blue-green algae that are symbiotic with higher plants to fix nitrogen

33

organelles of a chlorplast

granum
thylakoid
liquid droplets
nucleoid
ribosomes
nucleus
inner and outer membrane
inne membrane space

34

organelles of a cyanobacterium

peptidocylgin layer
mucoid sheath
capsuel
carboxysom

outer membrane
intermembrane space
inner membrane
thylakoid
ribosomes
nucleoid
luiquid droplets

35

dicristates?

- contain euglenoids (traditionally animals) that evolved through a secondary endosymbiosis

-are unicellular
-contain chlorphyll a and b
- ingested from green algae
-fresh and saltwater habitats
- have no cell wall (but a layer made of of proteins and mibcotubules)
- store carbohydrate as paramyion

36

heterokonts?

diatoms: of the heterokontes (stramenophiles)

- are unicellular
-silicase with vales
-chlorophyll a and c for caretonid foxocantin

- store carbohydrates as chryaminarian and oils
-have flagallete spores
-diatomceaous eart used in swimming pool filters

37

brown algae

example: marcotysis (kelp)
'seaweeds', are marine and multicellular
- store chlorophyll a and c (caretonid foxocatinin)
-store carbs as leucosis and oil
- spores with 2 flagella
- ecoloigcally structure element son which other organisms cros in coastal/intertidal environments
- absorb nutrients through whole body

38

another type of heterokont?

plankton!
is unicelllar and uses photosynthesies
found in marine and frash water
flagallete spores with 2 flagellae
-very diverse

examples: raphidophytes
eustigrmatophytes

coccolithophores

39

coccolithothores?

are plaknoton used in climate change studies as they make alkekones (carbon blooms);
unicellular and covered with carbonate plates
are only marine

40

alveolates?

e.g. dinoflagalletes:
some are photosynthesis
contain 2 flagalle for movement
chlorphyll and c; carotenid
are biolumniscent (result in red tides)

one group are symbionts in corals and gian clams! [zooxanthellae]

41

plants

red algae
green algae
land plants

42

red aglae

related to green plants; are motly marine seaweeds

chlorophyll A and D; phycoertythim, phycocyanin, allophycocycanin

no flagallae

harvested for food (carginogen moss)

e.g. coralice/crustose red algae

43

coralice/crustose red algae

secretes calcium carbonate on all cell surface of their cell; important reef componented used in bone therapy

44

green algae

freshewater and marine
unicellcular AND multicellular
chlorohyll a and b; various carotenoids
NO roots; absorb nutrients throughout cell
store carbohydrates as starch; like land plants

2 main groups; chlorophytes + charophytes

45

closest living relative to land plants?

the embryophytete

46

chlorphyte

- type of green algae
e.g. Chlmyomonas
unicellular
freshward and marine
model organism for physiological processes like flagalle movment
first algal genome contracted from it

47

charophyte

type of green algae
e.g. charafragilis
freshwater and flagallate spore
cellular differentation of tissues
closest relative to land plants

e.g. znegmetales, desmidales (pond scum; no spores and unicellular)

48

misclaffication exampel of charophyte?

charafragilis; 'stone warts'

49

land plants

angiosperms
gumno sperms
ferns and horsetails
lycopods
hornworts and mosses and liverworts (bryophytes)

50

sister group of land plants

charophytic angale

51

land plant generation cycle?

alternative syscles between diploid and haploid phase

52

diploid phase

sporophyte

53

haploid phase

haploid spores

54

bryophtes and gametes

are paraphyletic
spend most of the time as gametophytes

a. halpiod (gameotphyte)

b. reproduce by spores that germinate into arctegonia (female) and antheridia (male)

55

vascular plants and gametes

spend most of the time as sporophytes

56

bryophtes

'constructures of terrestial ecosystems'
the first land plants
consist of mosses, liver worts and horworts

dont have vascular tissue such as lignin or roots

structures are thalloid )flate plates) or foliose (leafy)

57

liverworts

rhizoid (root like structure)

membrane bound oil bodies with isoprenoids

sperms with two flagallea

water needed for fertilization

2 main groups are thannoild or leafy

smell nice as they secret aromatic oils

58

mosses

leaves are one cell thick and attached to substrate with rhizoids

sphorophyte (diploid) usually on stalk and capsule is filled with spores


spores can be projected at great distances up to 20 cm

peat is ecologically regulating and often includes mosses

59

hornworts

horn-shaped sporophyte

gametophyte is thalloid

the most ancient bryophte lineare

have a symbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria and hycorhizal fungi

60

VASCULAR PLANTS PROPERTIES

- possess microphylis
spore reproduction and sporophyte is main plant body
vascular tissue

61

microphylis

small leaves analogous to megaphylis of other vascular plants

62

vascular tissue

phloem (conducts sugars produce from photosynthesis from leaves to rest of plant; is a two way flow with pored walls)

xylem (conducts water from soil and roots to leaves where photosynthesis takes place and trasnrpiration occurs; trecheids and vessen elements are lignified dand strong)

63

lycophyes

posses microphyliis and reproduce by spores
sporophyte is main body

endosymbiotic relationships with fungi
used to be mroe diverse but today mostly exitinct
3 groups;
lyycopods (flammable spores)
quill worts
sealinnelles

64

ferns and horsetails

- not thought relatve before dna sequencing!
-gametophyte is haploid
- sporophyte id iploid
- most of life cycle is sporopohyte, unlike bryiphyte

reoroduce by spores, not seeds
mostly sporophyte but gametophytes are free living and photosynthestic

two kinds of gern;
a, eusporangiate; spored fused into syangia

b. leptosporoangiate; spores are under indusia [flaps] or in individual sporangis

65

gymnosperms

seed plants; 'naked seeds' (ovules or note enclosed in ovary)

consist of conifers, cycads, gnetales and ginko

gnetales: once thoguth tob e clsoely related to angio sperm

66

welwitschia mirabilises

type of gymnosperm; thought in nambian desert and grows for whole life span

67

ephedra

world wide found

epehedrine is used for athetic drug

68

ginkobioloba

tropical lianas

wood has vessel elements

HUGE vines

69

angiosperms

flowering seed plants that have relationships with insects and othe rpollinators

have flowers and hidden seeds
are vascular plants with xylem
flowers and fruit facilitiate pollination and dispersion for further development

have ovules that hold the 'seeds' and a carpel (which developts into fruit)

they appeared super fast and in large quantaities; diversified 135 mya

have a million species

origianted in early creatacous

3 main groups are ana grade, monocots and educiots tha

70

monocots

monophyletic;
once cotyledon from germinating seeds
flower parts are in threes
parallel veins in elaves
scattered vascular
fivrous roots

eg. lillies, palm trees and ocrhids, and grasses (rice, wehat and maize); economic and ecologically diverse

71

dicots

not monophyletic; are part of ana grade and eudicots
two cotyledons
flower parts in fours or fives
net like veings
ringed bascular

have tap roots

72

ana grade

'basal angiosperms'; evolve from common ancestor to angio sperms on different lineage than eudicots and monocots

Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales

Amborella (a single species of shrub from New Caledonia), Nymphaeales (water lilies, together with some other aquatic plants) and Austrobaileyales (woody aromatic plants including star anise).[1]

73

eudicots

most angiosperms!
two monphyletic lineages; the rosids and aseterids

74

water lillies and sacred lotus case

waterlillies (nympircae) are actually ANA grade and the sacred lotus (nelumbo) is actually a eudicot!

both have floating leaves and many petals but gene sequencing shows they are genetically different, while morpholoically similar

classic analogous features case!

75

gingko

ginko are living fossis of the gymnosperm; only living member of its order; sued to be mroe diverse and thought extinct untill its disvoer in china in the 19th century; are motile sperm and smelly fruit full of butyrid acid

76

amobrella trichopida

new caledonia; sister to all flowering parts composed of male and female parts

shrub like

ana grade

77

trithuria

relative to water llilies; previosuly thought to be a grass
a

ana grade

78

magnolia

many undifferentiates flower parts; no distinct petals

seperate carbels

previously thought to be primitive
pollinated by beetles

ana grade

79

wintercase

drimys; no vessel elements in xylem and pollianted by beetles

ana grade

80

rosids

eudicto; often seperate petals
share anatomical features but no clear synanomorphies

legumes, roses, squashes, mustards

81

asterids

eudicot;
single embryo
share synanomoprhies
fused petals (tubular flowers)
bilaterally symmetirical (zygotic floweres)
reduce number of stamens

mints, daises, coffee, tomatoes

over 25000 species!

share s