Vertebrae Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrae Diversity Deck (86):
1

what is a vertebrae

chraniate chordates (organisms with a head)
of chordata phylum

have notochords or structure and movement

2

synamoprhies of craniates (12)

neural crest
neurogenic placodes
brain case
complex sense organs
cranial nerves
tripartite brain
complex endocrine system
muscularization of wall of gut tube
differentiated digestive organs and regionalizaiton of gut tube length
gills
heart
haemoglobin

3

synamorphies of vertebrates

vertegrae
2 vertical semicircular inner ear ducts
radial fin muscules

4

generalized vertebrae vs cephalochordate

generalized vertebrae: spinal cord

cephalochordate: notochords

5

veretrbrae classification order

triploblast
deuterstome
pharyngolermata
chordata
craniate
vertebrae

6

which vertebrae arent craniates

hagfishs

7

tetrapoda

have 4 legs
all rhindisistia but lungfish

8

synapsida

the mammals

9

saurosipdia

the reptiles; turtles, snakes, birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles, lizards

10

gnathiostomata

jawed fish; all vertebrae but lampreys

11

chondricthyes

cartilgeous fishes; sharks and rays

12

osteichthyes

minnows and humans; bony fishes

13

actinoptergii

ray finned fish (all fishes but lobe finned)

14

sacropterygii

love finned fishes; gave rise to tetrapods exept lissamophibia (the frogs/salamander)

15

rhindististia

all sacroptergians but coelacanths

16

amninota

hard shelled egg; all tetrapods but lissamophibia

17

first chordates?

arose in cambrian era 545 mya

18

one of the first vertebrae

pterasidomophtah (agnathan) in late cambrien
- dermal armour from australia
0fish fossils date back 450 mya

19

one of the first craniates?

hailcovella 530 mya; discovered 2009
possibly related to lampreys

20

tetrapods diversidfied to...

amniota and lissamophibia

21

lissamphibia

are all living amphibians
4500 living sepcies
e.g. frogs, salamanders, caecillians

22

early amphibians

'temnospondyis'; in fossils record in early carniberferous to early creatacous

23

ammphibians characteristics

have a double life; aquatic as larvae and terrestial as adults
tied to water for reproduction
born with gills, tail, liateral lines and other fishy traits lost in metamophirsis
ear strucutures modified for hearing air
reduction of digits to 4 fingers

24

temnospondysis

early ambhibians; shows metamoprhisis;
paleozoic species show ontogeneti cstages of loss of acquatic structures as they age

e.g. distoropod

25

ghanthostone

basal; phanozeroic era
- conodonts
-anapsida
-osterostraci
-placeodermi

26

conodonts

510-220 mya
'fish ancestor'; differen groups evolved and diversified in DEVONIAN era
teeth as main structures
early origins of cranial

27

osteroraci

430-370 mya
had eye

28

anapsida

410-430 mya
rodsal fins and eye

29

placodermi

420-350 mya; early jawed fish
limb strong and fites

30

where do jaws come from

maybe gills

31

jawless fishes developed from...

placoderms?

32

jaws assosiated with braincase

have manipular arch and palatroquartate cartilage

33

chordata

cephalochordates
tunicates
craniates

34

hemichordates

pterobranch
acorn worms

35

fishopod examples

-eustenopteron
-padericthys
-ichthysostega

36

theria

opposums and kangarros (marsupials)

placental animals (eusteria)

37

mammalia

monotremata marsupials eusteria

38

archosauria

crocodiles and birds

39

diapsida

lepisodsauria (tuatara and squamates), crodocidllia and aves

40

sauropsida

testutides, lepisosairua, crocodilia and aves

41

amniota

saurpsia and and mamalia

42

tetradpoda

amniotes without lissamphibia

43

limbs of tetrapods

generally pentadactyle
with radius, humerus and ulna (pectoral)
or tibia, femur and tubula

44

rayfinned fish limb

pectoral girdle fish

45

acathoestegan

365 mya; early tetravod with pectoral limbs

46

what did the pectoral fin became

fore limb in tetrapod

47

fin used as a paddle to

as a prop

48

evolutionary novelty frmo eusternopteron to ichtysitogae

bigger holes in skull
longer snout
development of a neck
use of fin as a prop

49

the shelled amniotic egg

built for birth by land
has addiditional membranes;
1. amanion
2. allantois
3. chorion

50

amnion

protective membrane surrounding embryo filled with amniotic fluid

51

chorion

protective membrane around whole egg for gas and nturient transfer

52

allantois

gas exchange/respeestory/execretion of waste area

53

evidence for amniote evolution

- all before 3rd massive excintion
-hylonomus; early sauropsid
- mesosauris; first acequaitc amniot
-pelycosaurous; first synapsid and ancestor to mammals

54

anapsid

- no post orbital fenestra
- lots of extinct taxa
-maybe secondary features in turtles

55

synapsis

- one post orbital fenestra
- all mammals

56

diapsid

- two post orbital fenestra
-includes all reptiles exept turtules
-not as dominant as synapsids; but synapsis became extinct leading to reptile lineage taking up niche space

57

birds and lizard skull arrangement

loss between and below openings

58

mammal skull arangement

post orbital openings have merged with orbit

59

archosaurs developments

crodocildes and birds lineages took over psot mass excintion

60

reptiles

very diverse; 17000 living species
mesozoic era (251-65 mya); age of the reptiles

61

examples of ancient reptiles

plesiosaurs
icthysosaurs
pterosaurs
paraeiasaurs
dinosaurs

62

main groups of sauripsida

1.trutles
2. lepisodaurs (snakes and lizards)
3. achosaurs (crodoiles, aves, dinosaurs)

63

turtle transitional fossil

odontochelys
220 mya
bottom half os shell and ribs on back and teeth

64

snake transitional fossil

haasiophis 95 mya
hindlimbs
aquatic

65

ichthysosaur transitional fossil

otarcosaurous 245 mya; more lizard and eesl shaped

66

bird transtional fossil

achaeopteryx
had feathers but reptile traits
150 mya

67

archosaurs

crodocildes, birds, dinoaurs, pterosaurs
arose in middle traissic 240-232 mya
first to show up where the crurutarsians

68

archosaurs

crodocildes, birds, dinoaurs, pterosaurs
arose in middle traissic 240-232 mya
first to show up where the crurutarsians

69

dinosaurs extinction

creataceous palaegeone mass extinction caused 65% to wipe out 66 mya
caused by 10 km asteroid in mexico

70

early dinosaurs

lived 230-220 mya
were all bipedal (staurkisaurous)
secondary groups becaome quardupedal to adapt to large body sizes

diveded based on hips and pelvis structure

71

ornithisiscians

'bird hipped' dinosaurs arose in traissic 220 mya
pubis poitns backward and down and wide pelvis
e.g. staogsauris

didnt give rise to birds however!!!
generally hervisorours

72

saurischians

'lixard hipped'
theropoda and sauroposdamoprhis
e.g. tryannosaourus and brachiosaurus
still most diverse
from tirassic 230 mya
gave rise to birds

73

archeaopteryx

1861 discovered
mad eit clear that birds are rpetiles

feathers teeth long bony tail and claws on hand

74

huxely and archeopterix

argued birds from dinoaurs; demosntrated birds related to theropods as he noticed hands of deinochus aand archeaopterix were similar

75

china fossils disvoveries

new fossils showed non avian dinours has feathers and protofeathers

76

feathers before origins of birds

1. unbranched filaments (protofeathers)

2. ribs shows spcializiaton for stiffer form

3. branched feathers

4. bird hips face backward and down

77

feathers after origins of birs

1. one reserved toe
2. symmetrical branching of feathers
3. keratinious beak
4. fused final vertebrae for stiff tail
5. alvia feathers for better manueverailbility

78

feathers

epidermal grows of keratin
evolved in dinosarus
used for flight and warmth and display

79

ornithiscians and feathers

- have been discovered
-before all featehred disnours seen as theraopods
-now suggests featers are primtivie for dinosaurs and evolve multiple times

80

recent study about dinosaurs

- they have feathers
-arent big ands slow
-arent all cold blooded

81

birds closest relatives

dromeosaurida ( velicricrapter) and trodentidae (byranosauraus)
groups are small and feathered

82

evolution of birds

- air born competition
- pterosaurs developed large body size to protect themselves; this made them vulnerable to extinction however

83

living reptiles

turtles lizards snakes crocodiles

84

extinct reptiles

plesdiosaurs icthysosaurds pterosauss and dinosaurs

85

k/pg extinction

67% of species

86

p/tr extinction

96% of species