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Flashcards in Bovine abdominal problems Deck (31):
1

rumen fermentation effects

at normal pH main VFA is acetate
more sugar = lower pH + different bacterial population + different VFAs - can lead to ruminal acidosis

2

salivation

provides buffer in the rumen
cow needs to be able to salivate sufficiently

3

acute ruminal acidosis

sudden ingestion of large amounts of fermentable carbohydrates
Animals breaking into feed stores, overfeeding of concentrates, sudden lack of forage or straw bedding
Life Threatening Clinical Emergency
Poor Prognosis

4

acute ruminal acidosis - clinical signs

Dull and/or recumbent
In-coordination / ataxia “Drunk”
Anorexia, blind, dehydration
Laminitis
Rumen stasis and abdominal distension
increased pulse, sunken eyes

5

acute ruminal acidosis - treatment

5% Sodium Bicarbonate slow i/v
i/v fluids isotonic NaCl
Oral Magnesium hydroxide
Rumenotomy and/or Rumen lavage

6

Sub Acute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) - clinical signs

ill defined herd syndrome
Low milk fat and depressed milk yields
Laminitis (solar ulcers, solar haemorrhages)
Reduced appetite
Liver abscesses
Haemoptysis (coughing blood) and Epistaxis caused by thrombosis of caudal vena cava
High herd culling rate

7

rumen bloat - clinical signs

Distension of Left flank
Mild – get distension of left sub lumbar fossa
More severe – get distension of whole left flank
Very severe – entire abdomen appears distended
May present as sudden death in severe cases, distressed, dyspnoea, may be recumbent but may be standing quietly and with distended left flank

8

2 types of bloat

frothy
gaseous/free gas

9

frothy bloat

Stable Foam forms in rumen. Traps gas and cannot eructate it out
Usually cattle at pasture, caused by foaming properties of soluble leaf proteins
Legumes, clovers, alfalfa and rich lush pastures, cereal rich diets
Can be sudden and severe and may lead to sudden death

10

frothy bloat - treatment

Clinical Emergency
Remove cattle from pasture or feed source
stomach tube or trocar into rumen - will not relieve bloat
antifoaming agent/surfactant which will allow foam to disperse - Poloxalene (Bloat Guard), Mineral oil, corn oil, Simethicone

11

frothy bloat - prevention

careful pasture management
Care when using very lush pastures, especially clovers.
Consider strip grazing, buffer feeding etc to prevent large, rapid and excessive intakes of lush pastures

12

gaseous bloat - causes

usually single animals
Excessive carbohydrate intakes
Anything causing oesophageal obstruction
Milk fever
Lateral recumbency – blocks cardia

13

gaseous bloat - treatment

relieve gas - stomach tube, rumen punture

14

oesophageal obstruction - causes

Choke
Lesions of oesophageal groove such as
Vagus Indigestion or Actinobacillus
Enlarge mediastinal LN’s (after pneumonia)
Tetanus

15

traumatic reticulo-peritonitis

hardware disease
If metal objects are eaten they tend to pass into and remain in the reticulum
common routine abattoir finding
Worming boluses
Magnets
objects pierce reticulum and can cause - Local peritonitis, Diffuse peritonitis, Pericarditis, Liver abscess

16

traumatic reticulo-peritonitis - common causes

wire, nails, screws etc
total mixed ration (TMR) can spread wire to lots of cows in one go

17

traumatic reticulo-peritonitis - clinical signs

Often vague and numerous presentations including
Drop of milk yield and reduced appetite
Increased temperature
Arching of back
Rumen contraction rate down and reticulo-rumen movements (mixing cycle) reduced or painful
Jugular pulse
Splashing sounds over heart

18

traumatic reticulo-peritonitis - diagnosis

withers pinch
pole test (flinch when threatened - pained sounds)
eric williams test (pain with reticular contraction)

19

traumatic reticulo-peritonitis - treatment

Conservative
Tie animal up with front feet raised
Parentral antibiotics 5-7-days
Pain relief
Rumenotomy to Remove Wire
Slaughter

20

left displaced abomasum (LDA)

Normally high producing dairy cows
Within 6 weeks of calving
Can occur in any class of animal

21

LDA - causes

Poorly understood
Poor management over Transition Period (dry period to post calving period)
High concentrate diet
Insufficient fibre
Diet changes made too quickly
Other diseases: Milk Fever, RFM
Genetic factors

22

LDA - clinical signs

may be mild initially but highly variable
Drop in milk yield (variable)
Reduced/Changed appetite (variable)
incr Ketone levels in blood and urine
Loss of body condition, reduce rumen contractions (variable)

23

LDA - diagnosis

pings over whole left flank

24

LDA - treatment

Rolling
Roll and Toggle
Right Flank Omentopexy
Left Flank Omentopexy
Right Paramedian Abomasopexy

25

left sided pings - rare causes

Bloat
Rumen Collapse
Vagal Indigestion
Pneumoperitoneum

26

right displaced abomasum (RDA)

Similar to LDA but less common
Problem – RDA can then twist to become a Abomasal Torsion or Volvulus
Acute intestinal obstruction, blood supply compromised, ischemic necrosis
Cow sick, shocked, dehydrated, in pain
Cow requires surgery within hours or slaughter on humane grounds

27

caecum displacement

Caecal Dilation
Similar predisposing factors to LDA
Clinical signs similar to LDA, variable
Rectal examination – Caecal apex palpable coming into pelvic inlet
Ping right paralumbar fossa
free caudal end may twist causing Volvulus

28

caecum displacement - dilation - treatment

Medical-fluids, high fibre diet
Surgery if persists

29

caecum displacement - volvulus - treatment

drain surgically
Exteriorise (bring outside the body), pack abdomen, incise apex and drain

30

Pings - left side

LDA

31

pings - right side

RDA, Abomasal Volvulus, Caecal Dilation/Volvulus, Gas in Spiral Colon, uterine tear at calving
ruptured abomasal ulcer