Intestinal pathology Flashcards Preview

Alimentary > Intestinal pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intestinal pathology Deck (18):
1

clinical presentation - abdominal pain

acute or chronic
Causes - Torsion, Obstruction (internal/external), Rupture

2

pedunculated lipoma

tumour attached by a small stalk
the stalk wraps around intestine and cuts off blood supply
red/black appearance of intestine

3

consequences of obstruction of the upper intestinal tract

Presentation generally acute and severe
Fluid and gas above obstruction
vomiting
metabolic alkalosis (loss of acid in vomitus)
dehydration
reduced renal flow and resultant uraemia

4

consequences of obstruction of the lower intestinal tract

Presentation less acute than upper (vomiting reduced + fluid resorption proximal to obstruction delays serious distension)
Pressure -ulceration and infarction, haemorrhage/peritonitis
metabolic acidosis due to dehydration + catabolism of fat + muscle (producing keto acids)

5

acute diarrhoea - causes

Often involves infectious disease
Viruses
Bacteria
Endoparasites
Protozoa

6

5 mechanisms of pathogenesis of diarrhoea

Altered epithelial cell transport (secretory diarrhoea)
Altered structure / permeability
Osmotic effects
Altered motility
Damage to colonic mucosa

7

consequences of acute diarrhoea

Loss of water - Dehydration, Haemoconcentration, Hypovolaemic shock
Loss of ions - Hypokalaemia, Metabolic acidosis

8

chronic diarrhoea +/- weight loss - causes

Chronic enterocolitis (inflammatory bowel disease)
Lymphangiectasia (dilation of lymph vessels)
Endoparasitism
Neoplasia
Grass sickness

9

maldigestion - liver - define

decreased bile secretion or obstruction to biliary outflow

10

maldigestion - pancreas - define

decreased enzymes (exocrine pancreatic insufficiency):
major cause of intraluminal maldigestion

11

malabsorption - intestine - define

decreased surface area for adsorption of nutrients

12

Bacterial overgrowth and maladsorption - causes

decr gastric acidity
motility disturbances
obstruction of intestine
immunodeficiency
cachexia (weight loss)
gastrectomy
colonicjejunal fistula

13

protein losing enteropathy

Main protein lost is albumin. Loss exceeds ability of liver synthesis and leads to hypoalbuminaemia

14

protein losing enteropathy - effects

Incr permeability to plasma proteins - lost to intestinal lumen
Chronic inflammation - lymphatic blockage
decr plasma osmotic pressure - oedema and ascites

15

inflammatory bowel disease

persistent intestinal inflammation
eosinophilic or lymphoplasmacytic enteritis

16

endoparasitism - effects

Maladsorption (e.g. cyathostominosis)
Obstruction (e.g. ascariasis)
Vascular compromise (e.g. large strongyle disease)

17

grass sickness - acute presentation

Nasogastric reflux and oesophageal ulceration
Gastric dilation and rupture

18

grass sickness - subacute to chronic

Weight loss
Muscle tremors
Rhinitis sicca (dry membranes)
Dysphagia
Patchy sweating
Constipation
Large colon impaction