Bovine Terminology Flashcards Preview

Large Animal Theory I > Bovine Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bovine Terminology Deck (104):
1

What is an abnormal condition characterized by the distention of the rumen with gases?

bloat

2

Bloat is seen as an enlargement of what side of the abdomen?

upper left

3

Define bull.

intact male of breeding age

4

What is the generic term for both the caruncles of the cow's uterus and the cotyledon of the placenta?

buttons

5

Define calf.

you male or female bovine under 1 year of age

6

Define claving.

giving both to baby cows

7

What is the term describing the value of a caracas for consumption?

carcass merit

8

What is a raised area of tissue on the ruminant uterus where the cotyledons on the placenta attach, also called "buttons"?

caruncles

9

What is a term meaning to force a cow to lie down, usually using a rope and knot system?

casting a cow

10

CMT

California Mastitis Test

11

What is an area of the placenta that contract the uterine lining, also called buttons?

cotyledons

12

What is a breed that has been formed by crossing two or more breeds?

composite breed

13

What is a feed stuff high in digestible energy and low in crude fiber?

concentrate

14

Is corn a concentrate?

yes

15

Is cereal grains a concentrate?

yes

16

Is soybean meal a concentrate?

yes

17

Is beet pulp a concentrate?

yes

18

Define cow.

sexually mature female boine

19

What is the term describing raising young calves from birth to 6-10 months of age?

cow-calf operation

20

What is a bolus of feed a ruminant regurgitates for further chewing?

cud

21

What is the removal of an animal from the herd for slaughter or euthanasia?

cull

22

Define term "didn't clean"?

did not pass placenta

23

Define dry cow.

cow that is not producing milk

24

Define eructation.

belching

25

What is the term for a calf that is produced to go directly into the feedlot?

feeder claf

26

What is a lot in which animals on a finishing ration are kept?

feedlot

27

Define finish.

degree of fatness of an animal

28

What is the term meaning to give birth to young and initiate milk production?

freshen

29

Define free martin.

Sterile twin female, that is sterile due to testosterone.

30

What is a vasectomized bull used to detect estrus in cows?

gomer bull

31

What is a metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of magnesium in the blood serum of cattle?

grass tetany

32

Define heifer.

Young female that has not produced a calf.

33

What do you calla grip of cattle?

herd

34

What is the amount of trimmed élan retail cuts that can be obtained from a carcasss usually expressed as a percentage?

Lean cutability

35

What is inflammation of the mammary gland?

mastitis

36

What is a prurient paresis due to hypoglycemia?

milk fever

37

What is a cow that did to get pregnant called?

open cow

38

What is an individual animal of a normally horned breed that does not grow horns?

polled

39

What is a feed that is high in fiber, low in digestible nutrients, and low in energy?

roughage

40

What is the regurgitation of undigested food and chewing of it for a second time, then re-swallowing the food?

rumination

41

What is a mammal whose stomach has four parts?

ruminant

42

What is a breeding animal, sometimes used interchangeably with purebreds?

seedstock

43

What is forage, orb fodder, o sorghum preserved by fermentation that produces acids?

silage

44

What is the little bit of horn left after dehorning called?

scur

45

Define settled cow.

pregnant cow

46

What is a slaughter calf?

calf ready to go to the market

47

What is the term for a female cow that is pregnant for the first time?

sprig heifer

48

TMR

total mixed ration

49

What is the name for the practice of weighing and blending all feedstuffs into a complete ration which provides adequate nourishment to meet the needs of dairy cows?

total mixed ration

50

Define steer.

male bovine castrated at a young age

51

What is the organization which grows the calf from 6-10 months to one year?

stocker-yearling op.

52

What is the triangular depression in the upper part of the flank?

paralumbar fossa

53

Where is the dorsal boundary of the paralumbar fossa?

transverse process of lumbar vertebrae

54

What is the cranial boundary of the paralumbar fossa?

last rib

55

All ruminants, including cows, have what instead of the upper incisors?

dental pad

56

Are a cow's lips mobile?

no

57

In a cow, what structure is used as a prehensile appendage to help move food around the mouth and to form a food bolus?

tongue

58

What is the appearance of cow kidneys?

lobulated

59

Are the right and left liver lobes divided in a cow?

no

60

What is the name for clumped lymph nodules throughout the GI tract?

peyer's patch

61

What does the motion of a cow's kick look like?

arc

62

What is another name for the cow's kicking motion?

cow kicking

63

What is the first stomach into which food enters?

rumen

64

What GI potion is a large vat that can hold up to 50 gallons at a time?

rumen

65

What GI portion has a large population of bacteria that ferment food?

rumen

66

What is the 2nd stomach in the cow?

reticulum

67

What are the two other names for the reticulum?

hardware stomach
honeycomb

68

Is there a true point of division between the rumen and the reticulum?

no

69

What is the third chamber of the stomach?

omasum

70

Which of the cow's stomach is very muscular?

omasum

71

What in the omasum allows for efficient absorption of water and salts?

highly folded, large surface area

72

What is the fourth and final stomach in the cow?

abomasum

73

What is known as the true stomach in the cow?

abomasum

74

What is the glandular stomach in the cow?

abomasum

75

In which potion of the GI tract in the cow does acid digestion take place?

abomasum

76

Where does the abomasum usually lie?

R front quadrant of abdomen

77

What GI organ functions to absorb nutrients as the chumpe passes through?

small intestine

78

What is the SI broken down into?

duodenum
jujunum
ileum

79

Are enzyme secreted in the SI?

yes

80

Do cows have a cecum?

yes

81

Is the exact function of the cecum in cattle known?

no

82

What shape is the colon of the cow?

spiral

83

What organ, on the cow provides passive immunity to calves?

marray gland/udder

84

What kind of gland is the mammary gland?

exocrine

85

Into how many sections is the mammary gland divided?

4

86

What is the name for grape like structures lined with specialized epithelium?

alveoli

87

Does each alveolus of the mammary gland have its own blood supply?

yes

88

In the cow, where does the milk collect?

alveolus lumen

89

What is the process of the milk draining from the udder when the cow is stimulated to let down milk?

milk letdown

90

Describe the path of milk letdown?

gland cistern
teat cistern
streak canal
via teat sphincter

91

If the teat sphincter weakens in a cow what does this allow to penetrate into the mammary gland?

bacteria

92

What hormones stimulate milk production?

growth hormone
adrenal coricoids
prolactin

93

What hormone stimulates milk letdown?

Oxytocin

94

What, in the cow, stimulates the release of oxytocin in terms of milk letdown?

sucking action

95

What can inhibit the release of oxytocin and there fore cease milk letdown?

pain
loud noises
other stressors

96

Is cow milk higher or lower in protein than human milk?

higher

97

What determines the fat content in milk produced by cows?

breed
diet

98

When does lactation in cows peak?

a few weeks after initiation

99

How many days after calving are dairy cows allowed to "dry out"?

300 days

100

When a cow is allowed to dry out, for how long is it dry?

2 months

101

Can cows be born with supernumerary teats?

yes

102

When can extra teats be removed?

during dehorning

103

Can having too many teats predispose a cow to mastitis?

yes

104

Are supernumerary teats inherited or developed?

inherited