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Flashcards in brachial plexus Deck (61):
1

innervates serratus anterior m. (hold scapula to thorax)

long thoracic nerve
SALT: Serratus Anterior Long Thoracic

2

innervates infraspinatous + supraspinatous m.

suprascapular nerve

3

innervates pectoralis major m.

lateral pectoral nerve

4

innervates subscapularis m.

upper subscapular nerve

5

innervates latismus dorsi m.

thoracodorsal nerve.

6

innervates teres major

lower subscapular nerve

7

major flexors of forearm+ supinators:
biceps m., coracobrachialis m., brachialis m. (flexes + supinates forearm)

motor innervation of musculocutaneous nerve

8

deltoid (abducts shoulder)
long head of triceps (extends forearm)
teres minor m. (externally rotates arm)

motor innervation of axillary nerve

9

motor innervation of radial nerve

BEST: many of extensors + supinators
Brachioradialis (FLEXES forearm, supinates, pronates)
Extensor carpi radialis longus (extend wrist), Extensor digitorum, extensor pollicis longus + other extensors (extends wrist + digits)
Supinator (supinates)
Triceps (extends forearm)

10

many of flexors of hand:
pronators teres + pronators quadratus (pronate hand)
flexor carpi radialis + palmaris longus (flexes forearm)
flexor digitorum superficialis and lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus (flexes wrist + digits)
flexor pollicis longus (flexes thumb)
1st + 2nd lumbricals (flexes MCP joints and extends IP joints)

motor innervation of median nerve

11

flexor carpi ulnaris m. (flex + adduct wrist
flexor digitorum profundus m. (flex wrist + fingers)
hypothenar m. (controls hand + 5th digit-pinky)
3rd+4th lumbricals (flexes at MCP and extends at interphalangeal joints)
interosseous m. (abducts + adducts digits)
adductor pollicis (adducts thumb)

motor innervation of ulnar nerve

12

holds scapula to thorax

serratus anterior m.
(originates on ribs 1-8, inserts on medial border of scapula)

13

external rotation of humerus

infraspinatous m. (posterior scapula)

14

abduct arm

supraspinatous m.

15

flexion
adduction
medial rotation of humerus

pectoralis major m.

16

internal rotation of arm

subscapularis m. (fills subscapular fossa, anterior scapula)
inserts in lesser tubercle of humerus

17

extension
adduction
transverse extension
flexion from an extended position
internal rotation

latissimus dorsi m.

18

medial rotation
adduction of arm

teres major m. (originates on dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula, inserts on medial lip of intertubercle sulcus of humerus)

19

major flexors of arm + forearm

biceps m. + coracobrachialis m. + brachialis m.
major flexors of arm + forearm

20

abduct (esp frontal plane)

deltoid m.

21

lateral rotation of humerus

teres minor m.

22

extend forearm

extensors + tricep m.

23

pronate arm

pronators + thenar m.

24

flex
adduct hand

flexor carpi ulnaris m.
interosseus m.
hypothenar m.

25

injury to C5-C6 nerve roots or superior trunk

Erb-Duchenne Palsy (Waiter's tip syndrome)

26

neck or shoulder traumatized
dystocia during delivery (large for GA)
pulling on shoulders during cephalic delivery
newborn with clavicle fracture (may not be due to a dystocia)
partial or complete paralysis of UE
bruising, stretching (usually reversible) or tearing of nerves

Erb-Duchenne Palsy (Waiter's tip syndrome)

27

most common nerves affected + symptoms in Erb-Duchenne Palsy (Waiter's tip syndrome)

loss of sensation of UE
no abduction = adducted: suprascapular n - supraspinatous m., axillary n. - deltoid m.
no lateral rotation = medial rotated: suprascapular n. - infraspinatous m.
no flexion + supination = extended + forearm pronated: musculocutaneous n. - biceps m.

28

injury to C8-T1 roots or inferior trunk

Klumpke palsy

29

cervical rib compressing inferior trunk
cervical rib compressing inferior trunk + subclavian artery →thoracic outlet syndrome
hypertrophy of anterior scalene m. → thoracic outlet syndrome

Klumpe palsy

30

nerves injured + symptoms of Klumpke palsy

atrophy of:
thenar eminence
hypothenar eminence: ulnar n.
interosseous muscle: ulnar n.
sensory deficits on medial side of forearm + side of hand
no radial pulse with moving head toward ipsilateral side (thoracic outlet syndrome)

31

sensory innervation of:
posterior arm
dorsal side of hand

radial nerve

32

wrist drop
difficulty straightening fingers
numbness on back of hand + posterior arm
weak brachioradialis reflex

radial nerve injury:
"saturday night palsy"
radial nerve compression or fracture of SHAFT of humerus

33

wrist drop

radial nerve injury

34

HAND ONLY:
sensory innervation of 5+ one-half of 4th digit
medial side of palm and dorsal hand

ulnar nerve

35

loss of flexion of wrist + digits

PROXIMAL injury to ulnar nerve (flexor carpi ulnaris + flexor digitorum profundus)

36

MCP joint hyperextension and IP joint flexion at 4th + 5th digitis
loss of abduction + adduction of digits
hypothenar wasting

DISTAL injury to ulnar nerve:
"ulnar claw" (lose 3rd + 4th lumbricals)
no abduction/adduction (interosseous)

37

sensory innervation of:
lateral palm + first 3 ½ digits

median nerve

38

loss of thumb abduction

median nerve injury AT THE ELBOW (no thenar m.)
"ape hand"

39

loss of flexion of 2nd + 3rd digits (index + middle)

median nerve injury AT OR ABOVE ELBOW:
"hand of benediction"

40

intermittent numbness of first 3 1/2 digits (thumb to 1/2 of ring finger)
at night or when typing (compression)
severe: atrophy of thenar m., weakness of palmar adduction/abduction

median nerve injury:
carpal tunnel syndrome

41

sensory innervation of:
lateral side of forearm

musculocutaneous nerve

42

sensory innervation of:
lateral shoulder

axillary nerve

43

loss of elbow flexion + supination of forearm

musculocutaneous nerve injury

44

loss of abduction of shoulder
weak flexion, extension, rotation of shoulder
loss of sensation to lateral shoulder

axillary nerve injury:
anterior dislocation of shoulder OR fracture of surgical NECK of humerus

45

artery that runs with axillary nerve

posterior circumflex artery

46

winged scapula

long thoracic nerve injury:
blow to neck or shoulder OR after radial mastectomy

47

structures in anterior triangle of neck

posterior digastric m.
sternothyroid m.
sternohyoid m. (lateral to sternothyroid)
superior omohyoid m. (lateral to sternohyoid)

48

structures in posterior triangle of neck

brachial plexus
subclavian vein (mid-clavicle)
external jugular vein
inferior omohyoid m.

49

unable to wipe bottom

thoracodorsal nerve injury

50

loss of forearm pronation

median nerve injury

51

weak external rotation of arm

suprascapular nerve injury (infraspinatous m.) + axillary nerve (deltoid m.)

52

supracondylar humerus fracture

median nerve

53

artery travels with radial nerve

deep brachial artery

54

nerve travels with anterior interosseous artery

anterior interosseous nerve

55

nerve travels with posterior interosseous artery

deep branch of radial nerve

56

nerve travels with suprascapular artery

suprascapular nerve

57

nerve travels with thoracodorsal artery

thoracodorsal nerve

58

nerve travels with dorsal scapular artery

dorsal scapular nerve

59

nerve travels with lateral thoracic artery

long thoracic nerve

60

nerve travels with ulnar artery

ulnar nerve

61

nerve travels with brachial artery

medial nerve