Brachial Plexus and Artery of Arm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brachial Plexus and Artery of Arm Deck (22):

Axillary Artery.
What is it?
What is it continuous from?
What are its borders?
What are its three parts?

Central structure of Axilla (armpit)
Continuation of the subclavian art.
Lateral border of 1st rib. and Inferior border of teres major.
Sup to pectoralis minor
Post to pec minor
Inf to pec minor.


Axillary Artery, 1st part.
How many branches?
Name them .
What do they supply?

1 branch.
Superior thoracic art.
Supplies medial and anterior thoracic cage axillary walls.


Axillary Artery, 2nd part.
How many branches?
Name them.
What do they supply?

2 branches.
Thoracoacromial Trunk--
A cromial branch
P ectoral branch
C lavicular branch
D eltoid branch
Anterior axillary wall and related regions

Lateral Thoracic art.
Medial and anterior walls of axilla (women, also the breast)
Runs with long thoracic nerve--Serratus anterior.


Axillary Artery, 3rd part.
How many branches?
Name them.
What are their branches or who do they supply?

3 branches.
Subscapular trunk (runs down thorax posteriorly)--
Thoracodorsal to Latissimus Dorsi
Scapular Circulmflex wraps around scapula.

Anterior circumflex humeral artery
Posterior circumflex humeral artery (runs with axillary n)


What are the 5 initial nerves that make up the brachial plexus?
What are the 5 major divisions of the plexus?

C5, 6, 7, 8, T1
Branches (Terminal branches) nerves


Name the terminal branches of the plexus and their destinations

Musculocutaneous n. Corocobrachialis and lateral skin.
Medial n. middle of hand (carpal tunnel)
Ulnar n. to pinky
Axillary n. to deltoid
Radial n. to thumb (post groups?)


Name the two branches of the Roots
What is their cranial nerve of origin?
What do they innervate?

Dorsal scapular n.
Rhomboids and levator scapulae.

Long thoracic n.
C5, C6, C7
Serratus anterior m. (spread wings and go to heaven)


Name the 2 branches of the superior trunk.

Suprascapular n.
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus.

Nerve to the subclavius.


Name the two nerves of the lateral cord.

Lateral pectoral n.
Pectoralis major m.
Accompanied by pectoral branch of thoracoacromial art.

Musculocutaneous n.
Pierces coracobrachialis m.
Anterior compartment of the arm.
Cutaneous distribution of lateral forearm.


Name the three branches of the medial cord.

Medial brachial & Antebrachial cutaneous n.
Cutaneous to medial arm and forearm.

Medial pectoral n.
Pectoralis minor m.


What injuries is the brachial plexus susceptible to?

The nerves are vulnerable to extensive stretching, such as motorcycle accidents, sleeping in a bad position for extensive time, Excessive traction during childbirth. Blunt Trauma producing nerve avulsions and disruption.


What is the name of the artery of the arm when it leaves the arch of the aorta to the lateral side of the R. carotid artery?

Brachio-cephalic artery


What is the order of the arterial branches of the subclavian art from medial to lateral?

Vertebral artery.
Thyro-Cervical Trunk
Internal mammary artery.
Costo-Cervicle Art.


What are the branches of the Thyro-cervicle trunk of the Subclavian art?

a. Inferior Thyroid branch
b. Transverse Cervical branch
c. Supra-Scapular branch


What are the 3 branches of the Brachial Art from superior to inferior and what do the supply?

Profunda Brachii art.--posterior aspect of arm; rides with radial n in radial groove
Superior Ulnar Collateral Art.--into blood vessel network for elbow
Inferior Ulnar Collateral Art. --into blood vessel network for elbow


Where does the Vertebral artery go and what does it supply?

Rides up to supply the brain in foramina of cervical vertebra (one of 2 major vessels to supply the brain; other is internal carotid)


What are the branches of the aorta and what are the branches of the branches of the aorta?

Left Branch--
Left common carotid
Left subclavian
Descending aorta

Right Branch--
Brachiocephalic with right common carotid.


What structure does the Brachial Artery travel next to and what does it divide into?

Rides down under the biceps and divides into Radial art and Ulnar art.


How do the Cephalic, Basilic, and Medial Cubital surface veins travel and where do they dump blood?

Cephalic--blood toward head, starts on thumb side, empties into axillary vein through pectoralis major.

Basilic--blood toward head, starts on little finger side, empties into brachial vein (becomes axillary vein)

Medial Cubital vein (at elbow)--connects basilic and cephalic veins.


Define deep veins

Deep veins accompany the arteries, name the same as the arteries in almost every artery except;
Jugular vein: runs with Carotid artery.
Cardiac vein: runs with Coronary artery.


Name the 2 lower extremity superficial veins and where they travel?

(Long) Great Saphenous Vein--big toe side, empties into femoral vein in groin (used for bypass and grafts)
(Short) Lesser Saphenous Vein--Little toe side, empties into popliteal vein (behind knee)


What assessments are done to determine brachial plexus nerve injury?
In addition to direct trauma to a nerve, what bone injuries can cause problems?

Nerve conduction studies and electromyography.
Spinal cord injuries in the cervical region and direct pulling injuries tend to affect the roots of the brachial plaxius. Severe trauma to the first rib usually affects the trunks. Dislocation of the glenohumeral joint injures divisions and cords.