Name the coloured bones of the skull
State the function of the frontal lobe
What structure separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?
Central sulcus - "separates sensing from doing".
State functions of the parietal lobe
Peception of sensory information such as touch, pain and pressure
State functions of temporal lobe
State functions of occipital lobe
Processing of visual stimuli
What separates the temporal lobe frombasically everything else?
The lateral sulcus
What is the name of the gyrus where you would find the motor cortex?
The precentral gyrus
Name of gyrus that is where you would find the somatosensory cortex? What lobe?
Post gentral gyrus.
The temporal lobe is the "thumb" when thinking of the brain as a hand. It has 3 gyri, what are they called?
Identify the central sulcus (and thus identify the precentral and postcentral gyrus)
State the function of the cerebeullum
- Multiple roles, but key in fine tuning and coordination of muscle movement that is initiated by the motor cortex
- Also plays role in planning and learning of skilled movements through connections with the thalamus and cortex
Explain what this is showing
- Essentially the size of the limbs on the map determine the motor and sensory imput for that particular part of the body
- Note that the motor and sensory areas of the cortexes tend to run in parallel
The most common upper motor neurone problem that would affect the legs would be in the spinal cord. However it is possible a tumour in the brain can also affect the function of the legs. Knowing the location of the limbs on the Homonculus (and thus where they are represented in the sensory and motor cortexes), where would a tummour be that it could affect both legs?
In the longitudial fissue - essentially presses bilatrally against both sensory/motor cortexes.
The dominant side of the brain is, typically, determines what hand dominant you are (save from picking up hand dominance from something like a sport. Would you expect to find speech also on the dominant area?
The frontal lobe has 3 gyri. What are they called?
Superior, middle and inferior fronttal gyrus
State the function of broca's area and specify its anatomical location.
- Inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe, in the pars opercularis and pars triagnularis
What region is required to process auditory information and where is it located?
The auditory cortex
- Found bilaterally
- In the Superior temoral gyrus
What is the function of wernicke's area?
Which hemisphere for 90% of population?
Where is it anatomically?
- Sensory language, i.e. understanding of language
- 90% is left
- Temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrusish
What presentation would you expect in a patient with damage to broca's area?
- Expressive aphasia (comprehension remains but not-fluent, slow speech)
Wernicke's area is found where, and is a part of what cortex?
Superior temporal gyrus
State expceted presentation of wernicke's area lesion (let's say due to middle cerebral artery stroke)
- Receptive aphasia
- Can still speak but poor comprehension
Ouline very briefly the process of interpreting a sound to forming a verbal response
- Sounds are relayed from the ear to the auditory cortex
- Signals are sent to wernicke's area, where the signal can be interpreted
- Relayed to broca's area, which is able to control, via the corticobulbar contract, control the bulbar muscles, and possibly also the diaphragmatic muslces required for breathing
- Parts of the non-dominant parietal lobe appear to contribute to non-verbal aspects of language in recognising meaningful intonation patterns
Label the following sturctures in this coronal section of the brain
The basal ganglia is a collection of 5 neuronal structures. When they go wrong clinically, they cause movement disorders. Name the 5 structures
- Body of caudate nucleus
- Substantia niagra
- Globus pallidus
Parkinsons disease affects motor activity and motor control. Which basal ganglia structure does it affect?
What is the corpus striatum
- Collection of structures in the basal ganglia;
- The Caudate nucleus
- The Putamen
- Globus pallidus (as part of the lentiform nucleus)
Identify the strcutures
Broadly state the role of the basa ganglia
Important for posture and voluntary mvoement
Also connected to the limbic system, which goven the expression of various behaviours and motivational states.
Identify the following structrues of the basal ganglia