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Pyramidal decussation

Function: crossing of the corticospinal tract
Lesion: weakness or paralysis of all voluntary muscles below

1

Sensory trigeminal

Function: receives touch, pain and temperature sensations from the face
Lesion:loss of the above sensations from the face

2

Reticular nuclei

Function: consciousness and many other functions
Lesion: If shaken up, it causes loss of consciousness for a brief time. However, damage can result in death.

3

Cerebellum

Function: it is responsible for the coordination of complex movements
Lesion: loss of hand, eye and other voluntary muscle coordination on the same side of the lesion

4

Solitary nucleus

Function: receives visceral sensations that includes taste.
Lesion: damage causes loss of taste and visceral sensations

5

Hypoglossal nuclei

Function: controls the muscles of the tongue
Lesion: causes the opposite side of the tongue to be paralysed. The tongue will deviate towards the paralysed side when protruded. Difficulty speaking and swallowing.

6

Inferior olive

Function: fires 10 action potentials per second for the cerebellum to plan movement with precise timing.
Lesion: loss of coordination.

7

Deep cerebellar nuclei

Function: It is the output centre for the cerebellum
Lesion: loss of coordination or aspects of coordination lost

8

Inferior cerebellar peduncle

Function: carries the olive cerebellar tract
Lesion: loss of coordination

9

Cochlear nuclei

Function: receives auditory information from the ears
Lesion: inability to detect the direction of the sound. Hearing is less impaired as auditory information crosses over to both sides of the brain.

10

Vestibular nuclei

Function: receives information about head position from the vestibular system
Lesion: vertigo which might be accompanied by nausea

11

Facial nucleus

Function: controls the muscles of facial expression and glands-submandibular, sublingual and lacrimal
Lesion:drooling and paralysis of opposite side of the face

12

Medial lemniscus

Function: compact bundle carrying fine touch and proprioception sensations from the body
Lesion: loss of these sensations on the contra lateral side.

13

Superior colliculus

Function: it receives auditory information from the cochlear nuclei from both the sides of the body
Lesion: inability to determine the direction of the noise and partial deafness.

14

Motor trigeminal

Function: controls the jaw muscles
Lesion: paralysis of these muscles

15

Locus coeruleus

Function: sends noradrenaline throughout the forebrain, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Awake centre and keeps the brain active
Lesion: excessive sleepiness

16

Central gray

Function: pain modulation by the release of endogenous opioids and stimulation of serotonin fibres
Lesion: inability to control severe pain during fight or flight situations

17

Middle cerebellar peduncle

Function: contains the Corticopontine fibres
Lesion: loss of coordination

18

Superior cerebellar peduncle

Function: contains the fibres that transmits feedback to the motor cortex via the thalamus
Lesion: loss of coordination

19

Basilar pontine nucleus

Function: the Corticopontine fibres synapses here
Lesion: loss of coordination

20

Superior colliculus

Function: responsible for visual reflexes
Lesions: abnormal visual reflexes

21

Inferior colliculus

Function: responsible for auditory reflexes
Lesions:

22

Pineal gland

Function: releases melatonin
Lesions:impaired sleep regulation

23

Periaqueductal Gray

Central Gray

24

Raphe nuclei

Function: serotonin distribution throughout the brain and spinal cord. It is an awake centre and keeps brain awake.
Lesions: excessive sleepiness

25

Isthmus

Function: organiser. Responsible for the development of the hindbrain and cerebellum
Lesions: death

26

Entorhinal cortex

Function:part of the hippocampal structures. Attaches location to episodic memory
Lesions:position aspect of memory impaired

27

Subiculum

Function:final output of the hippocampal structures
Lesions: loss of ability to form episodice memory

28

Visual cortex

Function: processes visual information
Lesions: cortical blindness

29

Dentate gyrus

Function: important for the formation of episodic memory
Lesions: inability to form episodic memory

30

Substantia nigra

Function:produces dopamine and distributes in the striatal complex
Lesions: Parkinson's disease

31

Ventral tegmental area

Function:produces dopamine and distributes in the accumbens nucleus. Part of the reward system
Lesions: lack of motivation

32

Red nucleus

Function: gives rise to rubrospinal tract, an important motor bundle
Lesions:motor impairments

33

Medial geniculate

Function: part of the thalamus, projects auditory information to the auditory cortex
Lesions: inability to process auditory information

34

Hypothalamus

Function: important functions that is responsible for the survival of the organism. Controls the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine system
Lesions: death

35

Thalamus

Function: relays all sensory and other inputs to the cerebral cortex. There are few exceptions such as the olfactory system
Lesions:inability to process specific information based in area affected.

36

Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus

Function:part of the thalamus. Relays visual information to the primary visual cortex.
Lesions: cortical blindness

37

VPM and VPL

Function:relays pain, touch and temperature sensations from the body
Lesions:loss of sensations

38

Pretectum

Function:
Lesions:

39

Prethalamus

Function:
Lesions:

40

Corpus callosum

Function: the largest commissure in the nervous system. Connects the right hemisphere to the left hemisphere
Lesions: split brain conditions

41

Amygdala

Function:emotional processing and processing olfactory sensations
Lesions: loss of social hierarchy and related feelings, loss of aggression and fear. Also good visual perception but lost visual recognition

42

Piriform cortex

Function: processes olfactory sensations
Lesions: loss of olfactory sensations

43

Optic tract

Function:carries visual information from the retina
Lesions: blindness

44

Caudate-putamen

Function:part of striatum and is important in regulation of style and form of movement. Projects to the pallidum. Initiation of movement.
Lesions: increased muscle tone that makes the person to appear emotionless or apathetic. Parkinson's disease

45

Globus pallidus

Function:part of pallidumand is important in regulation of style and form of movement. Projects GABAergic fibres to the thalamus. Initiation of movement.
Lesions: increased muscle tone that makes the person to appear emotionless or apathetic. Parkinson's disease

46

Insular cortex

Function: processes taste and visceral sensations
Lesions: loss of these sensations

47

Internal capsule

Function:carries both ascending and descending fibres to and from the cortex
Lesions: loss of sensations or paralysis of voluntary muscles or both to some extent.

48

VMH

Function: nuclues that produces feeling of satiey
Lesions: never feels full

49

Fornix

Function: connects the hippocampal structures and some other parts of the part
Lesions: coordination of these centres for complete processing of information

50

Claustrum

Function:
Lesions:

51

Ventral pallidum

Function:part of the striatum. Works with orbits frontal cortex to produce pleasure
Lesions: lack of motivation

52

Anterior commissure

Function: connects the structures of the temporal lobes
Lesions: inability to coordinate information from both sides.

53

Stria terminalis

Function:
Lesions:

54

Septum

Function:
Lesions: Headache

55

Preoptic area

Function: has centres that regulate the 24 hour clock and sleep regulation
Lesions:hormonal disturbances and pathological insomnia

56

Cingulate cortex

Function:important for personality and behaviour
Lesions: profound changes in behaviour

57

Nucleus accumbens

Function: part of the striatal complex that stimulates the ventral pallidum and orbitofrontal cortex to produce feeling of pleasure
Lesions: lack of motivation

58

Olfactory bulb

Function: carries olfactory information
Lesions: loss of olfaction senses

59

Accessory olfactory bulb

Function: pheromone detection. Important for social and mating clues
Lesions: inability to detect these cues