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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (23):

Hindbrain vs brainstem

Hindbrain is the term that refers to the part that connects the spinal cord to the mid brain and includes the cerebellum. Brainstem refers to the whole of the midbrain and hindbrain, excluding the cerebellum.



Embryonic precursor of the hindbrain.


What are the parts present in the hindbrain at the level of the inferior olive?

Inferior olive
Solitary nucleus
Fourth ventricle
Hypoglossal nuclei
Reticular nuclei
Sensory trigeminal nuclei


What information does the sensory trigeminal nuclei receive?

The nuclei receives touch, pain and temperature information from the face.


Why is the sensory trigeminal sometimes referred to as spinal trigeminal nuclei?

It is because the nuclei extends a it into the cervical region of the spinal cord.


What is the role of the hypoglossal nuclei?

The hypoglossal nuclei controls the muscles of the tongue.


What is the role of solitary nuclei?

The solitary nuclei relieves taste sensation and sensory information from internal organs such as the stomach and lungs.


What is the role of the inferior olive?

The inferior olive fires ten action potentials per second which is like a timing machine. Those timing is used by cerebellum to coordinate movement for it to be fluent.


What is present at the level of the facial nucleus in the hindbrain?

Facial nucleus
Sensory trigeminal
Pyramidal tract
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Cochlear nuclei
Vestibular nuclei
Reticular nuclei
Deep cerebellar nuclei


What is the role of facial nucleus?

The facial nucleus controls the muscles of the face expression. It is large group of motor neurons


What is the role of cochlear nucleus?

It receives auditory information from the ears.


What is the role of vestibular nucleus?

To determine head position and head movement to give us a sense of balance.


What is in the hindbrain at the level of the superior olive?

Superior olive
Pyramidal tract
Reticular nuclei
Parabrachial nucleus
Medial lemniscus
Sensory trigeminal
Motor trigeminal
Cochlear nucleus
Locus coeruleus
Central grey


What is the role of superior olive?

The superior olive processes auditory information.


What is the role of motor trigeminal nucleus?

The motor trigeminal nuclei controls the masticatory muscles.


What is the role of medial lemniscus?

The medial lemniscus carries the touch information from the body and the face to the thalamus.


What is the role of locus coeruleus?

The locus coeruleus contains almost all noradrenaline fibres in the brain. It projects these fibres towards the forebrain, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. If shut down, we go to sleep.


What is the sensory trigeminal called rostral and caudal to th superior olive?

Caudal to superior olive, it was known as spinal trigeminal complex.
Rostral and at the level of superior olive, it was known as the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus.


What is the colour of the locus coeruleus in fresh brain?



Periaqueductal Gray and pain

The PAG is a thick sheet of neuron covering the aqueduct, which plays a vital role in the response of the brain to sever pain. PAG fibres contains endorphins which have an action like opium and morphine. Morphine drug works on the PAG to relieve pain. PAG is also connected to the serotonin fibres of the raphe nuclei.


Superior colliculus

A raised area of the dorsal surface of the midbrain and is involved in visual reflexes and attention.


Substantia nigra

Found a t the level of the red nucleus. It is black in colour due to neuro melanin which is black in colour. It gives dopamine pathway to striatum, helping motor control


Entorhinal cortex

Close to the hippocampus. It works with the hippocampus to attach memories to a location