Lesions in the brain parts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesions in the brain parts Deck (19):
1

Lesion in lateral region of hypothalamus

Stops eating or eating less leading to anorexia. Loss of neurons may affect the feeling of thirst.

2

Lesion in Ventor medial region of hypothalamus

Excessive eating , Obesity

3

Damage to suprachiasmatic nucleus

Excessive sleepiness during daytime

4

Generic or super symptoms

Damage to the hypothalamus can cause hormonal imbalances, malignant hypothermia, body�s inability to control temperature, diabetes insipidus, inappropriate ADH and diencephalic dysfunction ,neurological storms.

5

Hypothalmic glioma or tumor

Euphoric "high" sensations
Failure to thrive (lack of normal growth in children)
Headache
Hyperactivity
Loss of body fat and appetite (cachexia)
Loss of vision (Hydrocephalus)
Precocious puberty ( if pituitary gland is affected)
Seizures

6

Functions of medulla oblangata

Speech and swallowing
motor reflex control of larynx, pharynx and tongue
Coughing, salivating, vomiting, sneezing and taste
motor control of visceral reflexes
Coordination of eye movements and positioning of the head and neck
medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
Relay for cochlear and vestibular signals
CN VIII
Regulation of consciousness, visceral functions, sensation, etc.
Reticular formation

7

Damage to radian ulnar and median nerves

Paralysis of the upper limb with reduced or absent spinal reflexres and reduced or absent spinal sensations

8

Damage to the femoral obturator and sciatic nerve

Paralysis of the lower limb with reduced or absent spinal reflexres and reduced or absent spinal sensations

9

Lesion in cauda equina

Bladder with reduced tone, unresponsive anus and a paralysed tail

10

Lesion in medulla oblangata

Proprioception deficit, Weakness on same side or both sides. There is high chance of cranial nerve nuclei 9,10,11,12 is also affected

11

Lesions to the Pons

Proprioception deficit in same side
Weakness in one side or whole of body with normal or hyperactive limb reflexes
Cranial nerve 4 and 5 deficits

12

Unilateral lesions to cerebellum

Long sightedness / Short Sightedness
Contralateral head tilt ( tilting to opp side)

13

Bilateral lesions to cerebellum

Generalized incoordination of head and limbs
Intention tremors
Generalized disequilibrium

14

Lesion in midbrain

Opposite side to have proprioception deficit and weakness on that side
Damage to nuclei of cranial nerve 3 , in large midbrain lesion organism will be in state of near unconsciousness

15

Lesion in diencephalon

Very difficult to differentiate from cerebral cortical lesions
May affect feeding , drinking , breeding , sleeping and other behaviours as well as regulation of body temperature

16

Lesions in frontal cortex

Responsible for intelligence and fince control movements. Lesions cause
Dementia
Lack of recognition of self
Motor seizures with involuntary muscle twitching on opp side of body
( Lesions to internal capsules are same)

17

Damage to parietal lobe

Deficits in general perception
Nociception
Temperature and pressure
all on opposite side of the body

18

Damage to occipital lobe

Blindness with pupils responding normally to light.
Blindness with pupils that do no respond to light is associated with lesions in retina, optic nerve, optic chiasm or the optic tract

19

MRI and CT scans

CT scans are helpful to detect changes in bone, acute hemorrhage, and CNS neoplasia. MRI scans are the best to demonstrate soft-tissue changes, eg, neoplasia, abscesses, inflammation, and hemorrhage. MRI is the gold standard for evaluation of lumbosacral disease in small animals. Magnetic resonance angiography can be used to evaluate vascular changes in the CNS.