Brain Trauma Flashcards Preview

Neuropathology > Brain Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Trauma Deck (13):
1

Blunt head injury

incidence

The most common general type of brain injury and can result in damage to bones, parenchyma or blood vessels, singly or in combination.

2

Skull fracture

types

* linear (radiating from site of impact)
* basal (involves bones of skull base)
* depressed (bone pushed into cranial cavity)
* contrecoup (fracture occurs at distance from point of injury, e.g, occipital blow ---> orbital roof fracture)

3

Skull fracture

Assoc with…/consequences

fracture associated with laceration of scalp is compound, with laceration of dura is open (penetrating)

consequences of skull fracture include intracranial hematoma, CSF leak through ear (otorrhea) or nose (rhinorrhea), damage to cranial nerves, and ingress of air (pneumocephalus) or infectious agents.

4

Contusion

def

hemorrhage within the superficial brain tissue without disruption of pia-arachnoid at brain surface

5

Contusion

Gen chars

a. coup vs. contrecoup (underlying impact site vs. opposite side of brain)

b. usually occurs at crests of gyri in frontal and temporal poles, orbitofrontal and lateral temporal

c. may be relatively asymptomatic but later glial scarring can lead to development of seizures.

6

Laceration

def

traumatic disruption of the surface of the brain with hemorrhage.

7

Coup contre-coup injuries

def

Coup represents lesions underlying the site of impact and contre-coup lesions diagonally opposite. If the head is the moving object (impacting on pavement): contre-coup > coup, and if the head is hit by a moving object: coup > contre-coup

8

Diffuse axonal injury

Where is it seen

disruption of axons, particularly of long tracts in the brain stem (especially midbrain), corpus callosum, deep cerebral white matter

9

Diffuse axonal injury

Seen in/pathology

common in severer rotation/acceleration injuries (e.g., whiplash).

pathology: perivascular microhemorrhages with formation of swollen axons (spheroids), which accumulate β-APP

10

DAI

Level of consciousness/milder form

patients with severe DAI are unconscious from moment of injury; may remain comatose, vegetative or severely disabled for life.

concussion (transient loss of consciousness) and sequelae probably represent mild form of DAI.

11

Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages

Occur along with…

Parenchymal or vascular lacerations

12

Diffuse vascular injury

Occurs as a consequence of…

Shearing BV’s and axons (DAI) w/in the brain parenchyma due to severe shear/rotation forces

13

Penetrating Head Injury
Most commonly gunshot wounds or penetration with sharp objects.

a. Gunshot wound; exit wound is larer and more lacerated than the entrance wound.
b. Penetration by high velocity bullets can give rise to extensive brain damage (brain stem) distant from entrance and exit wounds of the bullet.