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Flashcards in Brainstem; Medulla Deck (51):
1

lesion of corticospinal fibers above the pyramidal decussation

contralateral motor deficit

2

lesion of corticospinal fibers below the pyramidal decussation

ipsilat motor deficits (ie in the SC)

3

lesion of STT in medulla

contralat loss of pain and temp sensation from body

4

1st order neurons of the dorsal column

DRG

5

gracile and cuneate fasciculi carry what info

epicritic sensation
- conscious proprioception and fine touch

6

unilateral lesion of FC and FC in medulla at the level of the pyramidal decussation

ipsilateral loss of fine tough and prorioception

7

spinal nucleus of V

brainstem continuation of dorsal horn, but input from trigeminal n. from face via Spinal tract of V
contains 2nd order nuerons
relay info -> contralateral VPM
info; protopathic; temp, pain, crude touch

8

spinal nucleus of V, relays what type of info where?

protophathic info from face (pain, temp, crude touch)
to; VPM nucleus of the thalamus
via; STT

9

lesion of spinal nucleus of V or spinal tract of V

ipsilateral loss of pain and temp sensation form the face
loss of blink relfex (afferent limb)

10

sensory decussation

axons from 2ndary sens neurons in gracile and cuneate nuc decussate as internal arcuate fibers and become the medial lemniscus

11

lesion above the pyramidal decussation

contralateral UMN symptoms
(spastic paralysis, babinsky respons, hemiparethesis)
contralat loss of epicritic info from body

12

lesion of CN XII

hypoglossal n
impsilat weakness, fasciculations, and ipsilat deviation of tongue upon protrusion

13

medial lemniscus =

axons of 2ndary sensory neurons in contralat gracile & cuneate nuclei

14

internal arcuate fibers =

decussating sensory fibers before they form the medial lemniscus

15

lesion of medial lemniscus

contralat loss in conscious prop and fine touch info

16

somatotopy of medial lemniscus

info from lower limb = ventrally
info from upper limb = dorsally
(the man standing)

17

lateral (accessory) cuneate nucleus

relays unconscious info from upper limbs -> cerebellum

18

spinal nucleus of V, spinal tract of V

trigeminal n input from face
protopathic pain (pain, temp, crude tough)
to contralateral VPM nucleus of thalamus
Via; STT

19

lesion of spinal nucleus and tract of V

ipsilateral loss of pain and temp sensation from face
loss of blink reflex (afferent limb - sensory)

20

role of inferior olivary nucleus

beleived to play a role in motor learning via its connections (climbing fibers) with the cerebellum

21

lesion of CN XII

hypoglossal nerve
LMN signs
ipsilat deviation of the tongue

22

solitary nucleus and tract recieves

general visceral sensation and special gustatory info

23

lesion of salitary nucleus and tract

ipsilateral loss of taste sensation

24

medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, lesion

part of balance control system
imbalance, nystagmus away from the lesion and dizziness

25

dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, lesion

1st relay for auditory info forom cochlear n
ipsilat loss in hearing

26

lesion of inferior cerebellar peduncle

cerebellar ataxia (lack of vol coor of mmm mvmts)
hypertonia (ab increase in mm tension)

27

the STT travels with what other tracts?

spinomesencephalic
spinoreticular tract
all together these 3 = anterolateral system or spinal lemniscus

28

locations of VSCT crossings

1st ventral white commissure
2nd superior cerebellar peduncle

29

medullary reticular formation

contributes to several functions;
sleep-arousal cycle, motor control, regulation of visceral activity

30

origin of MRST

the medullary reticulospinal tract originates from the nnucleus gigantocellularis and terminates in spinal cord

31

main function of MRST

facilitate flexor motor neurons
inhibit extensor motor neurons

32

nucleus ambiguus

motor neurons controlling pharynx and larynx muscles
dorsal to inf olive w/in medullary reticular formation (difficult to id)

33

lesion of nucleus ambiguus

loss of gag reflex (efferent limb)
horse voice and dysphagia

34

lesion of the pyramid in the open medulla

-above the decussation;
contralat motor deficit

35

somatotopy of the medial lemniscus in the medulla

oriented vertically
ventral - Lower limb (epicritic info)
dorsal - Upper limb (epicritic info)
(epicritic info = fine touch/proprioception)

36

unilateral lesion of the medial lemniscus

contralat loss in proprioception and fine touch sensation from the body

37

origin of the tectospinal tract

neurons in the superior colliculus

38

function of the tectospinal tract

involved in the reflex of orientation of the head in response to visual, auditory, and somesthetic stimuli

39

medial longitudinal fasiculus

ascending and descending tracts involved in control of head/neck mvmt and coordination of the vestibulo ocular reflex
(located; dorsal (above) tectospinal tract, which is above the medial lemniscus)

40

unilat lesion of vestibular nuclei

imbalance
nystagmus away from the lesion
dizziness

41

lateral vestibulospinal tract

LVST
descends to all spinal cord
faciliates MN controlling Antigrav Extensor mm

42

medial vestibular nucleus

origin of medial vestibulospinal tract MVST
terminates at C and high T levels to control head/neck in relation to gravity

43

dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei

1st relay for Auditory info entering via the cochlear nerve

44

unilateral lesion of cochlear nuclei

ipsilat loss in hearing

45

inf cerebellar peduncle

includes many tracts - all cerebellar

46

spinal nucleus and tract of V

carry pain and temp sens from face

47

lesion of spinal nucleus and tract of V

ipsilat loss of pain and temp sens from the face
loss of blink reflex (afferent - sens limb)

48

function of VSCT

provides the cerebellum with a motor copy (eff copy) of what the spinal motor neurons are being told to do

49

medullary reticular formation

cont to sleep-arousal cycle, motor control, reg of visceral activity

50

nucleus perpositus

involved in the control of eye mvmts (higher up in the midbrain aboveish the hypoglosseal nuc)

51

lesion of the gracile or cuneate nucleus

ipsilat loss of epicritic info