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Flashcards in Hyp-Functions Deck (40):
1

Posterior Nucleus; function & loc

Sympathetic output (fight or flight)
Thermogenesis

(posterior region)

2

Tuberomammillary nucleus; function & loc

Histamine sys - Promoting Wakefullness

(posterior region)

3

Fornix

memory consolidation
projects from hippocampus to mammillary bodies

(Posterior region of hypothalamus)

4

Mammillary body; function

memory consolidation

(posterior region)

5

Lateral Hypothalamus; function

feeding center
orexin sys - promoting wakefulness & appetite

(posterior region)

6

Posterior Region - consists of;

Posterior nucleus
Tuberomammillary nuc
Mammillary body
Lateral hypothalamus

7

Tuberal Region - consists of;

Lateral Hypothalamus
Ventromedial nuc
Arcuate nuc
Dorsomedial nuc

8

Ventromedial nuc; function

satiety center
contains leptin-sensitive neurons

(tuberal region)

9

leptin

increase conc in ventromedial nuc -> cessation of eating

10

Dorsomedial nuc; function

feeding & body weight regulatio
nmay serve as relay center of energy homeostasis

lesion: feeding & body wt dysfunction

(tuberal region)

11

Arcuate nuclesu; function

Secretion of hypophyseal hormones
Feeding behavior (orexigenic & anoretic neurons)

(tuberal region)

12

Dorsomedial nucleus; function

control feeding & body wt

(tuberal region)

13

Anterior supraoptic region; consists of

Anterior nuc
Suprachiasmatic nuc
Supraoptic nuc
Paraventricular nuc
Lateral hypothalamus

14

Anterior nuc; function

control of Parasymp
Thermoregulation (dissapation of heat)

(ant supraoptic region)

15

Suprachiasmatic nuc; function

Circadian rhythms
(bio clock & modulates pineal gland function)

(ant supraoptic region)

16

how does the suprachiasmatic nuc control circadian rhythms?

receives light info from retinal ganglion cellsvia; Retinohypothalamic tract
info relayed via desc symp fibers from hypothal -> intermediolat nuc -> sup cervical ganglia -> pineal gland
Inhibits prod of Melatonin during day
(melatonin = sleep-promoting hormone)

17

Paraventricular nuc; function

water retention (vasopressin secreting)
milk letdown, uterine contraction (oxytocin secreting)
control ant pituitary function (ACTH, TSH)

(ant supraoptic region)

18

milk letdown & water retention

paraventricular nuc
magnocellular neurosec neurons project to Posterior Pituitary;release Oxytocin or Vasporessin (ADH) in to general circulation

Vasopressin - inc water perm in collecting duct, activated by inc in osmolarity, circ levels of angiotensin, dec BP, hypovolemia

Oxytocin - stim of nipple -spinal pathways->hypothalamus = act of these neurons -> Oxytocin release => contraction of myoepithelial cells

19

paraventricular nuc; control of Ant Pituitary function

parvocellular neurosec neurons project to the median eminence/portal sys to control ant pituitary function;

Corticotropin-RH N - enhance adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Thyrotropin-RH N - enhance thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release
Somatostatin-R N - inhibit growth hormone secretion

20

Supraoptic nuc; function

water retention
milk letdown, uterine mm contraction

(ant supraoptic region)

21

Supraoptic nuc - how it works

paraventricular nucmagnocellular neurosec neurons project to Posterior Pituitary;release Oxytocin or Vasporessin (ADH) to general circulation-

Just like the Paraventricular nuc
(except doesn't alter secretions of ACTH, TSH, or GH)

22

Anterior Preoptic region; consists of

lateral preoptic nuc
medial preoptic nuc

of telencephalic orgiin, but functionally associated w/ hypothalamus

*only part that the lateral hypothalamus isn't present

23

nucleus basalis of Meyner

rich in cholinergic neurons w/ wide projections to neocortex
compromised in Alzheimer disease

located laterally to the Lateral preoptic nuc - the Substancia Inominata
(in the Ant preoptic region)

24

Lateral preoptic nuc; function

Inhibits wakefulness
promotes non-REM sleep

(ant preoptic region)

25

Medial preoptic nuc; function

thermoregulation set point
release of gonadotrophic hormones (into med eminence) & sexual behavior

(ant preoptic region)

26

Stria terminalis

connects reciprocally the hypothalamus and amygdala

27

hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

system where factors controlling the hormonal secretion of the Anterior Pituitary gland are released and reach their target via a portal venous system

28

supraoptico-hypophyseal tract

contains axons from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei projecting to the posterior pituitary gland

29

retinohypothalamic tract

carries light info from retinal ganglion cells to the Suprachiasmatic nuc

30

dorsal longitudinal fasiculus

1. contains afferent hypothalamic fibers - carring visceral and tast sens; relayed to the hypoth via the solitary and parabrachial nuc

2 contains efferent hypoth fibers innervating; preganglionic parasym neurons, pregang symp neurons in spinal cord, autonomic reg centers in medulla, periaqueductal gray (pain modulation)

31

hypophyseal portal system links;

the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

allows endocrine signalling between the two structures

32

arteris of pituitary gland

superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries

33

superior hypophyseal artery

forms a capillary plexus, primary portal plexus, that penetrates the median eminence and infundibulum

primary portal plexus drains via long portal veins to the secondary portal plexus in the ant pituitary

34

inferior hypophyseal artery

forms capillary network within the posterior pituitary

venous drainage via hypophyseal veins

35

nuclei of Neuroendocrin control

paraventricular
supraoptic
arcuate
medial preoptic

36

nuclei of Weight Control, Feeding, Drinking

ventromedial
lateral hyp
arcuate
dorsomedial

37

nuclei of Temp Reg and Fever

medial preoptic (thermoreg)
posterior (symp)
anterior (parasymp)

38

nuclei of Osmoreg, Water Balance, BP, B volume

posterior (symp)
anterior (parasymp)
paraventricular
supraoptic
CVO's

39

nuclei of Reproductive function

paraventricular (oxytocin)
supraoptic (oxytocin)
medial preoptic (inc LH and FSH)

40

nuclei of Sleep/Wake cycle

suprachiasmatic (circadian)
tuberomammillary (histamine-wakefullness)
ventrolateral preoptic nuc (non-REM sleep)